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Vol. I. Manual of Hebrew Syntax. By J. D. 

WlJNKOOP and C. VAN DEN BlESEN. 2S. 6d. 

y, II. Manual of Hebrew Grammar. By J. D. 

WlJNKOOP and C. VAN DEN BlESEN. 2S. 6d. 

„ III. A Modern Persian Colloquial Grammar, 

with Dialogues, Extracts from Nasir Eddin 
Shah's Diaries, Tales, etc., and Vocabulary. 
By F. Rosen. io^. 6d. 

y, IV. Arabic Manual. By F. E. Crow. 


^ -J O .JOt 









F. E. CROW, 



LUZAC & Co., 


46, Great Russell Street 




It is hoped that the present work will supply a want, 
which has long been felt by those, who, for purposes 
of business or recreation, have been led to visit Syria 
and Palestine. The extensive scope of English and 
American missionary development, and the yearly in- 
crease in the influx of tourists to this country may, 
perhaps, render both useful and acceptable any means, 
which facilitate the acquisition of colloquial Arabic. This 
manual has no classical pretensions and is, by no means 
exhaustive. It is intended, merely, as a practical guide 
to the spoken language, which may serve to enable 
those, who wish to deal directly with the natives, to 
do so, without being obliged to have recourse to the 
medium of an interpreter. The limited compass of the 
book has, necessarily, restricted the selection of the vo- 
cabulary, and the words chosen will merely satisfy the 
ordinary and most practical requirements. In using it, 
allowances must be made for local differences of pro- 
nunciation. It should, also, be borne in mind that collo- 
quial Arabic is never written, and that both its pronun- 


ciation and terminology are loose and undefined. English 
characters are used throughout the work, which places 
it within the reach of those, who have made no study 
of Oriental languages. As regards spelling and pronun- 
ciation, a system of transliteration has been adopted, 
for purposes of uniformity, but local differences of dia- 
lect and the arbitrary disregard, in spoken Arabic, for 
the rules, which govern the formation of the classical 
language, necessarily preclude an absolutely rigid adher- 
ence to it. 

I take this opportunity of expressing my grateful 
appreciation of the kind assistance which I have re- 
ceived, in the compilation of this work, from Dr. 
WoRTABET, Messrs. ESPER and FUAD Shqucair and 
Mr. CONSTANTINE KliOURI of Beirut, and from Messrs. 
Nesif Bey and Michael Meshaka of Damascus. 

British Consulate. F. E. C. 

Damascus, October i. 1899 



Orthography and Pronunciation 3 

Etymology lo 

Paradigms of Verbs 22 

Numerals 58 

Prepositions 60 

Adverbs 63 

Conjunctions 70 

Interjections 71 

Seasons, Months, and Days of the Week 73 

Time 74 

English and Arabic Vocabulary 79 

Dialogues in English and Arabic 305 








c. p. 

collective plural. 


common to both genders 
























passive participle. 







pres. part. 

present participle. 



pro. suff. 

pronominal suffix. 







V. a. 

active verb. 

V. n. 

neuter verb. 




I. Grammar. 

The oriental character is not used in this little work. 
The Arabic letters are represented by their approximate 
English equivalents and the transliteration is completed 
by figuring the vowel sounds as pronounced. The system 
of orthography adopted for this purpose has been fol- 
lowed as closely as local differences in pronunciation 
will admit. It is, however, not rigid and the aim is 
rather to reproduce, as correctly and as intelligibly as 
possible, the sound of words as pronounced, than to 
give a forced rendering of the Arabic letters by the 
substitution of arbitrary equivalents. 


The Arabic alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters, 
which are figured throughout the book by the cha- 
racters represented in the following table. 


Arabic letters. 





a, e, i or u (modified according 
to the vowel sound). 








s, th 

s or t 










zal or thai 

z, th 
























z, th 




' placed before a vowel (gives 
a hollow sound like the at- 
tempt to pronounce a vowel 
without a consonant). 




kaf, "af 

k ("a) 

" when the k sound is omitted, 
and k when it is pronounced, 
which is rare. 














w, oo 

w, u, u or ow 





y» i 

y or i 


The hemza is a soft breathing or point of disjunction. 
It creates a hiatus before the vowel which it introduces 
and its effect is very similar to the sound made when 
attempting to pronounce a vowel without a consonant. 
It is either a radical letter or an inflection prefixed to 
verbs and is joined to the letter elif, which has no 
sound of itself in Arabic. When it comes in the middle 
of a word it is represented by the breathing ' and has 
a sound very similar to the 'ain, e. g. 
mu'min a believer, 
ma'kulat eatables. 

In the vernacular the hemza in the middle of a word 
is often replaced by ye e. g. je'iz lawful (pronounced 
jeyiz); le'i" proper (pronounced leyi"). 

Vowel sounds. 

The Arabs have only three vowel signs which are 
unwritten. They are called fatha, kesra and damma. 
The fatha has an open sound like the 'a' in 'ashore', 
e. g. hadd a boundary. The kesra has the sound of 'V 
in 'in*, e. g. hibr ink. The damma has the sound of 'u* 
in 'puir, e. g. kutub books. 

As the oriental character is not used in this book, its 
object being merely to reproduce the sound of Arabic 
words as pronounced by means of a system of transli- 
teration, it will be sufficient to note that there are ten 
vowel sounds and three compound vowel sounds, for 
each of which a specific character has been adopted, 
as follows: 

a long as in father, far written a 

a short „ „ ashore, china „ a 














• or u long 




as in egal (like a in fate) written e 

V V merit „ e 
„ „ marine „ i 

« « ill » i 

„ „ old w o 

« « or » o 

V V too „ U 
y, V pull r, U 

ai, ay is pronounced in this book as in aisle. 

ey « « V r, r, V V prey, 

ow „ „ ^ „ „ „ „ powder. 

Observations on pronunciation. 

se (figured s or t) is sometimes pronounced 's', e. g. 

suls a third, and sometimes *t', e. g. ti"il heavy. Its 

proper pronunciation is 'th' as in 'thick' but it is 

rarely heard in conversation, 
jim (figured j) is pronounced in Syria like a soft 'g' or 

like the *z' in azure, 
ha (figured h) has an open guttural sound, somewhat 

akin to *kh*. 
khe (figured kh) has a deep guttural sound, resembling 

the *ch' in the Scotch word loch, 
zal or thai (figured z) is generally pronounced *z' on 

the plain and 'th', as in 'them', on the mountain. In 

some places it is pronounced *d'. 
'ain (figured ' before a vowel) has a deep hollow sound, 

e. g. 'ind-i with me, I have, 
kaf (figured " whei? the *k' sound is omitted and k 

when it is pronounced). The *k' sound in this letter 

has completely disappeared in most parts of Syria and 


is only retained among the Druses. It is pronounced 
like the Arabic hemza with a deep hollow sound, 
e. g. "iddem-i before me; wa"aft I stood; kadir 'ala 
kill shey The Almighty. 

y followed by a vowel is pronounced as in yes. 

•• diaeresis, denotes that the vowel, over which it is 
placed, is to be pronounced separately, as in 'naive*, 
e. g. t'ai come, (imper. fem.) ; mai water. 
The acute accent is used to indicate the letter or 

syllable on which the accent falls. 


In Syria, after the following letters, the final te (called 
t6 marbuta or tied te) the sign of the fem. sing, and 
the general termination of all fem. words, is changed 
into ye in the colloquial language and pronounced short 
like the 'y' in merry. It is here written i : 

after be 



a blow. 




a plant. 




a mission. 




a meadow. 




a rose. 




a helmet. 




an almond. 




a sitting. 




a bite. 








a cake. 




a she-mule. 






after nun e. g. hafni a handful. 
„ wow „ serwi wealth. 

„ ye „ zabiyi a gazelle. 

Note. These words are properly darbeh, nebteh, ba'aseh, 
etc. and darbet, nebtet, ba'aset, etc. before a word 
beginning with a vowel. 

After the following letters the final te is dropped 
altogether and the fatha or open sound of the preceding 
syllable is alone pronounced. A fatha always precedes 
the sign of the fern. sing, whether te or elif. 

after ha 



an apple. 

. khe 



a chicken. 

„ sad 



an opportunity. 

n dad 



a loan. 

. ta 



a dot. 

n ?a 



an utterance. 

r, *ain 


bu'*' 'a 

a tract of land. 

V ghain 



a list. 

. "af (l^af) 



a ring. 

. he 




Note. These words are properly tiffehah, ferkhah, fursah, 
etc. and tiffehat, ferkhat, fursat, etc. before a word 
beginning with a vowel. 

After the letter re the final te is sometimes changed 
into ye, pronounced 'i' short as in ill, e. g. kbiri big 
(properly kbireh), zghiri small (properly sghireh), and 
sometimes omitted altogether, leaving only the fatha of 
the preceding syllable, e. g. jerra a jar (properly jerreh 
or jerret before a vowel). 

In all words, which have the ending of the fern, sing., 


the *t' sound of the original termination reappears, when 
the word is immediately followed by another word be- 
ginning with a vowel, e. g. jneyni the garden. 

jneynit al-khuri the priest's garden. 

Shortening of words. 

The tendency of the spoken language and especially 
of the Syrian dialect is to clip the words as much as 
possible. Hence the vowel sound, which properly belongs 
to the initial letter of a word, is only pronounced when 
the second syllable is quiescent (called in Arabic sukun) 
and the word would be unintelligible, if it were omitted. 
Thus, the kesra belonging to the letter 'k' in kiteb a 
book is suppressed and we have instead kteb; sha'ir 
barley becomes sh'ir; resasa a bullet becomes rsasa, and 
so on. This is especially noticeable in the passive past 
participles of certain forms of verbs, in which the middle 
radical letter is doubled, when the damma of the first 
syllable is invariably dropped, e. g. mkesser broken in 
pieces (not mukesser), mshedded tightened [not mushed- 
ded), msellem surrendered (not musellem), m'owwad 
compensated (fiot mu'owwad). 

Note. The pronunciation of vulgar Arabic varies greatly 
in different parts of Syria. That adopted in 
the grammar and vocabulary is used in Beirut 
and the dialogues at the end of the book are 
given in the Damascus dialect. The pronunciation 
in the coast towns and in most of the Christian 
villages of the Lebanon is very similar to that 
of Beirut. Among the Druses the sound of *k' 


in the kaf is invariably preserved but, in other 
respects, their pronunciation differs little from 
that of the Damascenes. In Beirut, the plain and 
parts of the Lebanon elif is usually pronounced 
like the French *e' in 'egal' or like the 'a' in 
'fate' e. g. uled children, ken there was, msefir a 
traveller, de'imen always. Whereas, in Damascus, 
it has the sound of 'a' in 'far' e. g. ulad, kan, 
msafir, da'imen. The negative particle 'mush' 
(composed of ma hu shey) is used in many parts 
of Syria but never in Damascus, where they say 
'mau'. In Beirut the letter wow is generally pro- 
nounced like the 'ow' in 'how', e.g. hown, here; 
yowm, a day; jow", a band, etc. while, in Damas- 
cus, it has the sound of the 'o' in 'bone', e. g. 
hon, yom, jo". The 'ain in 'ind takes a kesra in 
Beirut and the Lebanon, e. g. 'ind-i I have, but 
in Damascus and other parts it is pronounced 
with a fatha, e. g. 'and-i. 

The Article. 

The Arabs have only one article 'al', which is definite 
and is prefixed either to the singular or plural, e. g. 
al-ferruj the chicken; p. al-fererij. 

When followed by any one of the letters t, d, r, s, 
sh, z, n and colloquially j, the sound of the T is assi- 
milated to that of the succeeding letter, e. g. as-sit the 
lady; at-tilaghraf the telegraph; ash-shighl the work; 
az-zuruf the circumstances; aj-jim'a the week. 


The Noun. 

There are two genders of nouns in Arabic, masculine 
and feminine. 

Nouns are feminine either by signification or termi- 
nation ; e. g. by signification, imm taiyibi a good mother ; 
ikht latifi a pleasant sister; or by termination, e. g. 
jneyni kbiri a big garden; uda kwaiyisi a pretty room. 

There are three numbers in Arabic, singular, dual, and 
plural. The dual is formed from the singular by adding 
eyn, e. g. walad a child, dual, waladeyn ; bint a daughter, 
dual, binteyn. 

In words having a feminine termination the final vowel 
is either changed into 't* or a 't' is intercalated before 
eyn, e. g. mdini a town, dual, mdinteyn; se'a an hour, 
dual, se'ateyn. 

When a pronominal suffix follows the dual the final 
n disappears, e. g. id a hand, dual, ideyn, my two 
hands ideyi; *ain an eye, dual, 'aineyn, your two eyes 

There are two kinds of plurals, regular and irregular 
or broken. The regular plural for masculine nouns is 
formed from the singular by adding in. 

e. g. nejjar a carpenter, p. nejjarin. 
khaiyyat a tailor, p. khaiyyatin. 
khiddem-ak your servant, p. khiddemin-ak. 

The regular plural for feminine nouns ending in *e' 
(vulgar i; see introductory note on terminations) or *a' 
is formed by changing these letters into at or ^t. 


e. g. bereki a blessing, p. bereket. 
kelbi a female dog, p. kelbet. 
hara a house, quarter, p. harat. 
ghasseli a washerwoman, p. ghasselet. 

The plurals not formed as above are very irregular 
and varied, so that a thorough knowledge of them can 
only be acquired by practice. Those in common use 
will be found in the Vocabulary. 

The Adjective. 

There are many forms in Arabic for the adjective, 
e.g. sahih true; kerim generous; sabur patient; hulu 
beautiful, sweet, but there is only one form of adjective 
derived from substantives. This is formed by adding i 
to the substantive, e.g. ward roses, wardi rosy; shems 
the sun, shemsi solar. 

The comparative is formed from the positive by pre- 
fixing 'a' and lengthening the last syllable of the adjective; 

e. g. sihl. 

easy, c. as-hal. 


„ c. ahwan. 


big, c. akbar. 


long, c. atwal. 


pretty, c. akwas. 

'than' is expressed by the preposition min, e. g. beyt-i 
akbar min beyt-ak my house is bigger than yours. In 
the case of participles, used as adjectives, and various 
adjectival forms, which do not readily admit the regular 
comparative, the latter is formed by adding the word 
aktar, the comparative of ktir much. 


e. g. meshghul busy, c. meshghul aktar. 

ikhtiyar old, c. ikhtiyar aktar. 

*atshen thirsty, c. 'atshen aktar. 

defien warm, c. defien aktar. 

Comparative measure as to the difference in quality 
of various objects is expressed by adding the prepo- 
sition bi, e. g. al-hawa akhaf min al-mai bi ktir, air is 
much lighter than water. 

The superlative is formed by adding the article to 
the comparative, e. g. ahsan better, sup. al-ahsan ; akbar 
bigger, sup. al-akbar, or by adding the article to the 
word following, e. g. ahsan an-nes, the best of men ; hui 
akbar al-kill (akbar min al-kill), he is the greatest of all. 

The adjective agrees with the noun in gender and 

The feminine of adjectives is formed by adding 'a' or 
'e' to the masculine, the e being changed in the Syrian 
dialect into ye pronounced i {see hitroductory note on 
terminations). The feminine is figured short i or a. 

e. g. kwaiyis f. kwaiyisi pretty, 
taiyib f. taiyibi good, 
mabsut f. mabsuta well, happy. 

When an adjective stands next to a substantive with 
which it agrees, it is placed after the substantive and 
not before it, e. g. jneyni kwaiyisi, a pretty garden. 

Adjectives denoting colour form their feminine as 
follows ; 





f. baida. 



f. safra. 



f. hamra. 



f. khadra. 



f. zer"a. 

(aswad) aswid 


f. sowda. 

The plural of adjectives like that of nouns is regular 
or irregular and is formed in the same way. Adjectives 
of relation formed from nouns and ending in 'i' form 
their plural by adding the feminine termination ye, e. g. 
fransewi french, p. fransewiyi. Rjel fransewiyi or franse- 
wiyin Frenchmen. 
Note. They say in Arabic beyt 'aali, a high house; al- 

beyt al-'aali, the high house ; al-beyt 'aali, the house 

is high. 

Colloquially the adjective is often placed in the mas- 
culine plural with nouns which are feminine or with 
broken plurals, thus violating the rule of the written 

e. g. nisw^n taiyibin good women, 
(benet) benat kwaiyisin pretty girls. 

al-kutub lezizin the books are interesting. 


No use is made colloquially of the case endings. The 
relation of words to one another in a sentence is de- 
termined by their respective positions or by means of 
a preposition. The following examples will sufficiently 
illustrate this: 
Genitive, Ija ahad khiddemin al-"onsul. One of the 


Consul's servants came (lit : there came one of the 
servants of the Consul). 

a'ala jibel ad-dunia. The highest mountain in the 

world (lit : the highest of the mountains of the world). 

'aded sukken beled an-nemsa. The number of the 

population (lit: inhabitants) of the country of Austria. 

beyt at-tejir u jneynt-uh. The merchant's house and 

garden (lit : the house of the merchant and his garden). 

se'at Yusuf aj-jdidi. Joseph's new watch (lit : the 

watch of Joseph the new one). 

bwebet al-medini. The town gates (lit: the gates 
of the town). 

beb khasheb. A wooden door (lit : a door of wood), 
'ati-ni kibbeyi mai". Give me a glass of water, safteyn 
ashjar. Two rows of trees. 

A common way of expressing the genitive is by 

the use of the word 'teb'a', belonging or appertaining to. 

e. g. al-beyt teb'a sherik-i. The house of my partner 

(lit: belonging to my partner). 

al-kiteb teb'a Butros. Peter's book (lit: the 

book belonging to Peter), 
al-mifteh teb'a as-sandu". The key of the box 

(lit: the key belonging to the box), 
haida mush tcb'ai. This is not mine (lit : this 
does not belong to me). 
Some, one of, is expressed by ba'ad followed by the 
article, e.g. ba'ad an-nes, some people; ba'ad at-tij jar, 
one of the merchants; ba'ad al-liy^li, one night. 
Dative. The dative is formed by means of the prepo- 
sition ila (li) to. When the word is preceded by the 
article al, the *a' of the article disappears before the 


e.g. khud hal-kirsi lil-beyt, take this chair to the house, 
hal-hisan lil-bey'a, this horse is for sale, 
khud haj-jurnel Hr-rijjel, take this newspaper to 
the man. 
Vocative. The vocative is formed by adding the inter- 
jection ya to the noun, 

e. g. ya abu-na ! O our father ! (used to priests), 
ya habib-i ! O my friend ! 

ya 'y^^"i • O my eyes! (a term of endearment). 
Ablative. The ablative is formed by means of the pre- 
positions 'an, of or about, min from, etc. 

e. g. tkellamna 'an al-beyt, we spoke about the house, 
terjam hal-kiteb min al-'arabi lil-fransewi, he 
translated this book from Arabic into French. 

The Pronouns. 

Personal pronouns are: — ana I; inta (f. inti) [in the 
vernacular inti is used for either gender] thou ; hu (hui) 
he, it ; hiyi she ; nahn (nahna) we ; intum you ; hum 
(f. hinni) they. 

Pronominal suffixes are: — i (ni) me or my; ak (f. ik) 
thee or thy; uh him, it or his, its; ha (a) her; na us 
or our; kum you or your; hum (um) them or their. 

When joined to a verb these pronominal suffixes serve 
to express the accusative case of the personal pro- 
noun, e. g. darab-ni, darab-ak (f. ik), darab-uh (f. ha) 
darab-na, darab-kum, darab-hum. He struck me, thee, 
him, her, us, you, them. 

When joined to nouns and other words they serve as 
possessive pronouns, e. g. kiteb-i, kiteb-ak (f. ik), kiteb- 
uh (f. ha), kiteb-na, kiteb-kum, kiteb-hum my, thy, 
his, her, our, your, their book. 


They also serve as reflexive pronouns when joined to 
the word zet self, e. g. zet-i, zet-ak (f. ik), zet-uh (f. ha, 
a), zet-na, zet-kum, zet-hum myself, thyself, himself, etc. 
They are also joined to many adverbs, prepositions and 
particles, such as weyn where; m'a with; min from; 
minshen for; beyn between; "iddem in the presence 
of; 'ind by or with, etc., e. g. weyn-ak where are you ? 
m'a-uh with him ; min-ha from her ; minshen-na for us ; 
beyn-kum between you; "iddem-hum before them; 
*ind-i with me; 'ind-ak with you; 'ind-uh with him. 
The personal pronouns are sometimes added to the pro- 
nominal suffixes, when the latter are preceded by a 
preposition or a noun for the sake of emphasis, e. g. 
il-li ana to me myself; il-luh hui to him himself; 
kiteb-i ana my own book. 
The pronominal suffixes are joined to the cardinal num- 
bers, e. g. itneyn-kum you two ; tletit-na we three ; 
wahd-i I alone. 
When a verb is followed by two personal pronouns, as 
in the sentence 'He brought it me', the indirect object 
is placed immediately after the verb and the word 
ye is prefixed to the direct object. 

e. g. b*ati-h yeh lit : I will give him it. 

'atat-hum yeh „ She gave them it. 
'atu-ni yeha ^ They gave me it (f). 

'ati-ha yehum „ Give her them, 
jeb-li yeh „ He brought me it. 

Reflexive pronouns are expressed by the words z^t, hal 
or nefs joined to the pronominal suffixes. 

e.g. "atal hal-uh He killed himself, 

rah hui bzet-uh He went by himself, 

ken ar-rijjel i^t-uh It was the man himself. 



Demonstrative pronouns are: — haida (f. haidi) this; 
haidak (f. haidik) that; howdi these; haidolik those. 

When the demonstrative pronoun is joined to the 
article it contracts into hal, e.g. hal-kiteb this book; 
hal-bint this girl; hash-shajara this tree; hal-kutub 
these books. 

But they say haidak al-beyt that house; haidik al- 
bint that girl; haidolik an-nes those people. 
The relative pronoun 'who, which' has only one form in 
conversation, which is uninflected, illi, pronounced 
more commonly halli. 

e. g. ar-rijjel halli fil-uda. The man who is in 

the room, 
at-tijjar halli "iddem-kum. The merchants who 

are before you. 
al-uled halli jit inta u y^hum. The children with 

whom you came. 
Interrogative pronouns are: — min who, whom? limin 
whose, to whom? esh, shu which, what? ay (eni) which 
one, what? 

e. g. min hownik, who is there? min shuft (inti), whom 
did you see? limin hal-beyt, whose house is 
this? limin "ilt, whom did you tell? ay kiteb, 
what book? shu al mes'eH, what is the matter? 

The Negative. 

The negative is expressed by the words ma 'not', la 
'no' and mush (a contraction of ma hu shey) or mau 
'nothing' e. g. La, ana ma kint hownik. No, I was not there. 
Ana mush mabsut, I am not well. The syllable sh (a 
contraction of shey thing) is in parts of Syria frequently 


added to give emphasis but is never heard in Damascus, 
e. g. Ma intish mabsut. You are not at all well. Ana ma 
kintish hownik. I was not there. An-nahr, ma hush *arid. 
The river is not wide. 

The Verb 'to have'. 

The present tense of the verb 'to have* is formed by- 
means of a preposition and the pronominal suffixes, and 
the past tense is formed by adding to the present the 
3rd pers. sing, of the past tense of the verb ken *to be'. 


'ind-i khibz I have (lit : there is with me) bread, 

'ind-ak (f. ik) lahm Thou hast „ „ „ thee) meat, 

'ind-uh (f. ha) imbid He has (she has) „ „ him) wine. 

*ind-na bird"an We have „ are „ us) oranges, 

'ind-kum fweki You have » 7, » you) fruit, 

'ind-hum tiffeh They have „ are „ them) apples. 


ken 'ind-i injas I had (lit: there were with me) pears, 

ken 'ind-ak (f. ik) dirre" Thou hadst „ „ „ thee) peaches, 
ken 'ind-uh (f. ha) kerez He had (she had) „ „ him) cherries, 
ken 'ind-na jowz We had v i> v us) walnuts, 

ken 'ind-kum khowkh You had v rt v yo") plums. 
k6n *ind-hum 'inib They had „ „ „ them) grapes. 

The future tense is formed in the same way, by adding 
the 3«"d pers. sing, future tense of the verbs ken 'to be' 
or sir 'to become' to the prepositions li (ila) 'to' or 'ind 
'with* jpined to the pronominal suffixes. 


e. g. yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) li or 'ind-i 

I shall have (lit: there will be to me), 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) lak f. lik or 'ind-ak f. ik 

Thou shalt have, 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) luh f. la or 'ind-uh f. ha 

He (she) shall have, 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) il-na or 'ind-na 

We shall have, 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) il-kum or 'ind-kum 

You shall have, 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) lum or 'ind-hum 

They shall have. 

The Verb 'to be'. 

The present tense of the verb 'to be' is formed by 
means of the personal pronoun and an adjective, verbal 
adjective or participle used as an adjective, e. g. 

ana mabsut f. mabsuta. I am well, 

inti keslen. Thou art lazy, 

hui f. htyi meshghul f. meshghula. He (she) is busy, 

nahna so'ada. We are fortunate, 

intum ta'isin. You are unlucky. 

hum f. hinni mahzunin. They are sad. 

The other tenses are conjugated as follows from the 
verbs ken 'to be' or sir 'to become' e. g. 


akun (bkun) z'al^n I shall be angry, 

tekun f. tekuni (btkun f.btkuni) 'atshen Thou wilt be thirsty, 
yekun f. tekun (bikun f.bitkun) defien He (she) will be warm. 



nekun (minkun) mesrurin We shall be pleased, 
tekunu (btkunu) mkhaiyerin You will be puzzled, 
yekunu (bikunu) meskinin They will be miserable. 


kint t'aben I was tired. 

kint f. kinti neyim f. neyimi Thou wert asleep. 

ken f. kenet zghir f. zghiri He (she) was young. 

kinna tai'yin We were obedient. 

kintum (kintu) jein You were coming. 

kenu raihin They were going. 

Note. In Syria the letter *b' is prefixed to all persons 
sing, and pi. of the present tense except to the 
I St pers. plural when the letter *m' replaces *b'. 


kun 'a"il Be quiet, sensible, 

(neg.) ma (la) tkun bulit Do not be noisy. 

The Verb 'to become*. 

Present or Fut 



asir (bsir) 

I become 

(I shall become) 

tesir f. tesiri (btsir f. 



becomest etc. 

yesir f. tesir (bisir f. 


He (she) 

becomes „ 

nesir (minsir) 


become „ 

tesiru (btsiru) 


become „ 

yesiru (bisiru) 


become „ 


sirt I became. 


We became. 

sirt (f. i) Thou becamest. 

sirtum (u) 

You became. 

sar (f. sarat) He (she) became. 

saru They became. 

22 arabic manual. 


S. 2. sir Become. 

P. 2. siru „ 

(neg.) ma (la) tsir Do not become. 

The Verb. 

In dealing with so complex a subject as the Arabic 
verb, reference to its theoretical construction or to the 
elaborate rules, which govern its formation, has been 
purposely omitted. Ample information on the subject 
will be found in any treatise on Arabic grammar by 
those who contemplate a deeper study of the language. 

The majority of Arabic verbs are formed from three, 
and a few from four radical letters. The root of the 
verb is the 3rd pers. sing, of the past tense. From this 
root other forms are regularly derived by the addition 
to the stem of certain prefixes, affixes or infixes. The 
meaning of each derivative varies according to its form 
and is fully conjugated. 

The various derivative forms, as used colloquially in 
Syria, are, as far as is possible in so small a work, 
embodied in the Vocabulary and the vocal inflections 
are written as pronounced. Practice alone can render 
the learner familiar with these forms and inflections, 
and rules regarding them would only burden the me- 
mory of a beginner. As the present work has no clas- 
sical pretensions and is merely intended to meet the 
practical requirements of those who wish to learn enough 
of the spoken language to enable them to hold direct 
intercourse with the natives of the country, without 


employing the medium of an interpreter, it will be 
sufficient for ordinary conversational purposes to give a 
few paradigms of verbs, which are likely to be of ge- 
neral use and which sufficiently indicate the peculia- 
rities of the Syrian dialect. These may serve as rough 
models for the rest. 


Infinitive or Noun of action. Participle or Noun of agent. 
kit^bi the (act of) writing, ketib f. k^tibi p. ketibin a writer. 

Present or Future. 

(I write or I shall or will write, etc.). 

m. com. f. 


btiktub btiktubi 

byiktub bitiktub 


Note. In Syria the letter 'b' is prefixed to all persons 
sing, and pi. of this tense except to the ist pers. 
pi. when 'm* takes the place of 'b*. In dependent 
sentences or when preceded by another verb these 
prefixes are omitted. 

The dual is not used in conversation and is 
thus omitted throughout. 

In order to give this tense the exact signification of 
the present, e. g. I am writing, the participle or noun 


of agent 'ammal doing, often contracted into 'amm, is 
commonly added to it without inflection. 


(I am writing, etc.). 

m. com. f. 

II. *ammal ('amm) biktub 

2. 'ammal (*amm) btiktub 'ammal ('amm) btiktubi 
3. 'ammal ('amm) byiktub 'ammal (*amm) bitiktub 
I. 'ammal ('amm) mniktub 

P. 2. 'ammal ('amm) btiktubu 

3. 'ammal ('amm) byiktubu 

Note. The present can also be expressed by means of 
the personal pronoun joined to a present parti- 
ciple, e.g. ana raih I am going; raihin we are 
going, or to a verbal adjective, e. g. ana 'atshen 
I am thirsty. 

The exact signification of the future is commonly 
expressed by the word bedd (bidd) contracted from bi 
wudd 'it is the desire of ... , joined to the pronominal 
suffixes and placed before the present tense. The prefix 
*b' attached to the verb is more correctly dropped in 
this locution but is generally retained in the vulgar 

(I will, am about to or wish to write, etc.). 

m. com. f. 

II. bedd-i iktub 

2. bedd-ak tiktub bedd-ik tiktubi 

3. bedd-uh yiktub bedd-a tiktub 





bedd-na niktub 
bedd-kum tiktubu 
bedd-hum yiktubu 

(I wrote or have written, etc.). 









m. com. f. 

S. 2. uktub (ktub) uktubi (ktibi) 

P. 2. uktubu (ktubu) 

Note. The ist pers. plural imperative is taken from the 
present or future tense, e. g. niktub hal-mektub, 
let us write this letter (the prefix 'm' is omitted). 
The 2nd person of the imperative, when used 
negatively, is taken from the same tense with the 
addition of the negative particle ma or more 
correctly la, e.g. ma (la) tiktub hal-mektub, do not 
write this letter (the prefix 'b' is omitted). 

The imperfect is formed from the present or future 
tense by adding the verb k^n with or without 'ammal. 

26 arabic manual. 

(I was writing or I used to write, etc.). 

m. com. f. 

!i. kint ('ammal) biktub 

2. kint ('ammal) btiktub kinti ('ammal) btiktubi 
3. ken ('ammal) byiktub kenet ('ammal) bitiktub 
!i. kinna ('ammal) mniktub 

2. kintu ('ammal) btiktubu 

3. kenu ('ammal) byiktubu 

The pluperfect is formed from the past by adding the 
verb k^n. 





had written, etc.). 


com. f. 


kint katabt 

2. kint katabt 

kinti katabti 

3. k^n katab 

kenet katabet 


kinna katabna 


kintu katabtu 


kenu katabu 


The formation of the conditional present and past by 
means of ken used with the present or future tense or 
with the past will be seen from the following examples. 

I. If the weather is fine 
to-morrow I shall go to 
the country. 

I. Izaken at-ta"s hulu bukra 
bitl'a al-berriyi. 



2. If I should go to France 
I will let you know. 

3. Although you are going 
to Dubbaieh you can 
write the letter before 
you start. 

4. I would go with you if 
I had time. 

5. If you would go with 
me I should be glad. 

6. He would have gone 
with us if we had told 

7. If you had been ready 
I would have taken you 
with me in the carriage. 

8. The minister would have 
given him the post if he 
had asked for it. 

9. I hoped that you would 
have come here. 

10. I do not know whether 
I shall go to the moun- 
tains to-morrow or not. 

2. Izakint bruh ila Fransa 

3. M'a in-nak raih ila 
Dbbaiyi bti'Mir tiktub 
al-mektub "abl ma truh. 

4. Kint bruh m'a-ak low 
ken m'a-i wa'*t. 

5. Low kint btruh m'a-i 
kint ibkun mabsut. 

6. Ken biruh m'a-na low 

7. Low kint hadir kint 
bekhd-ak m*a-i bil-'ara- 

8. Ken al-wdzir 'ata-h al- 
merkez (al-matrah) low 
ken talab-uh. 

9. T'immelt in-nak btkun 
jit lahown. 

10. Ma b'arif izakint briih 
*aj-jebel *) biikra am la. 

i) Contracted from 'ala aj-j6bel. 

The passive. 

The passive, properly speaking, with the exception 
of the past participle, e. g. maksur broken, maktub 
written, is not much used in conversation, as the Arabs 
prefer to give an active rendering to their sentences, 
e. g. the old woman whose son was killed, is rendered 



in Arabic by, al-ikhtiyara halli "atalu ibn-a (lit: the 
old woman of whom they killed her son). A passive 
signification is however given to active verbs by adding 
the syllable 'in' and this form is in frequent use, e. g. 

katab he wrote; inkatab it is written. 

keshef he uncovered; inkeshef it is uncovered. 

sha" he split; insha" it is split. 

j6rah he wounded ; injerah he is wounded. 

wajad he found; inwajad it is found. 

keser he broke; inkeser it is broken. 

There is also another form of the passive derived 
from the active verb, e.g. "at'a he cut; ta"att'a he was 
cut in pieces. This is however rarely employed in con- 

The regular form of the present or future and past 
tenses passive, which only differ from the active by the 
substitution of damma for fatha or kesra in the first 
syllable, is as follows. 


Present or Future. 
(I am or shall be killed, etc.). 


























(I was killed, etc.). 





The following verbs in common use are conjugated 
in a brief form. With the help of the preceding para- 
digms the reader will be able to supply the remaining 




Sing. 2. Ta'a (Come). 







biji (I come, will come, etc.). 








com. f. 

jit (I came, etc.). 


Sing. 2. 


ruh (Go). 







bruh (I go, will go, etc.). 








riht (ruht) 

riht (ruht) (I went, etc.). 
rihti (ruhti) 




rihna (ruhna) 
rihtu (ruhtu) 



TO STOP (Transitive). 


Sing. 2. wa" "if (Stop). 






com. 1. 

bwa""if (I stop, will stop, etc.). 








wa""aft (I stopped, etc.). 






Sing. 2. u'"d. (Sit). 












com. f. 

bu"'ud (I sit, will sit, etc.). 






a adt (I sat, etc.). 






Sing. 2. "um. (Stand up). 









b"um (I stand up, etc.). 


bt umu 














"umt (I stood up, etc.). 

2. "umt 


3. "am 












Sing. 2. tl'a (Go 







bitl'a (I go, 

will go up, etc.) 

2. btitl'a 


3. byitl'a 












tl'at (I went up, etc.). 




















2. inzel (Go 







binzel (I 


will go down, etc.) 













m. com. 


nzilt (I went 

down, etc.). 

















2. kol. 













com, f. 

bekol (I eat, will eat, etc.). 





com. f. 

akelt (I ate, etc.). 





P. 2 

' 3 



Sing. 2. shrab (Drink). 

m. com. 



bishrab (I drink, will drink, etc.). 
btishrab btishrabi 

byishrab bitishrab 






. Past. 





shribt (I drank, etc.). 












1 3. 






2. hutt 







1 '• 

bhutt (I put, 

will put, etc.) 


: 2- 



f 3. 






1 ^' 









hattait (hatteyt) (I put, etc.). 

















ing. 2. "il (Tell). 






m. com. f. 

bi"il (bi"ul) (I tell, will tell, etc.). 
bf'il (bf'ul) bf'ili (bf'uli) 

bi"il (bi"ul) bif'il (bif'ul) 

min"il (min"ul) 

bf'ilu (bf'ulu) 

bi"ilu (bi"ulu) 




com. f. 

"ilt ("ilit) (I told, etc.) 





Sing 2. 


Camd) (Do). *amili 



m. com. f. 

!i. b'amil (I do, will do, etc.). 

2. bt'amil bt'amili 

3. bi'amil bit'amil 

!i. mn'amil 

2. bt'amilu 

3. bi'amilu 

m. com. f. 


'amilt (I did, etc.). 








TO RETURN (comeback). 

m. f. 

Sing. 2. rj'a (rje*a) (Return). rj'ai 


m. com. f. 

birj'a (I return, will return, etc.). 
btirj'a btirj'i 

byirj'a bitirj'a 

S. 2 
' 3 

P. 2 

mnirj a 



com. f. 

S. 2 
' 3 

P. 2 

rj'at (rj'et) (I returned, etc.). 
rj'at rj'ati 

ri'j'a rij'et 


rj 'atu 


TO RETURN (give back). 

m. f. 

Sing. 2. rajj'a (Give back). rajj'i 


S.\ 2 


P.J 2 


S. I 2 



m. com. f. 

brajj'i (I give back, will give back, etc.). 

btrajj'i btrajj'i 

birajj*i bitrajj'i 





m. com. f. 

raj j 'at (I gave back, etc.). 
raj j 'at rajj'ati 

rajj'a rdjj*at 

raj j 'ana 

raj j 'atu 






2. khud (khod). (Take). 








com. f. 
bekhud I take, will take, etc.) 

S. 2 

' 3 



m. com. f. 

akhadt (I took, etc.). 
akhadt akhadti 

akhad akhadat 






m. f. 

Sing. 2. 'ati (Give). 'ati 



m. com. f. 

ii. b'ati (I give, will give, etc.). 

2. bt'ati bt'ati 

3. by'ati . bit*ati 

!i. mn*ati 

2. bt'atu 

3. by'atu 

m. com. f. 

S. 2. 


'atait ('ateyt) (I gave, etc.). 








S. 2. 




. shil (Take away). 



m. com. 


bshil (I take away. 

will take away, etc.). 














com. f. 

shilt (I took away, etc.). 









2. khalli 

(Let). khalli 


com. f. 

I ^' 

bkhalli (I let, will let, etc.) 




' 3. 





' 3. 







khallait (khalleyt) (I let, etc.). 











2. jib (Bring). 












bjib (I bring, will bring, etc.). 






m. com. f. 

ii. jibt (I brought, etc.). 

2. jibt jibti 

3. j^b jebet 

!i. jibna 

2. jibtu 

3. j^bu 



m. f. 

Sing. 2. bellish (Begin). bellshi 





p. I 2 

' 3 



m. com. f. 

bbellish (I begin, will begin, etc.). 
btbellish btbellshi 

bibellish bitbellish 









bellesht (I began, etc.). 








Sing. 2. khallis (Finish). 

m. com. 



bkhallis (I finish, will finish, etc.). 
btkhallis btkhallsi 

bikhallis bitkhallis 








com. f. 

khallast (I finished, etc.). 








Sing. 2. "uss (Cut). 









b"uss (I cut, will cut, etc.). 






'assait (I cut, etc.). 
*. "dssat 







2. sallih 








bsallih (I mend, will mend, etc.) 













S. I 2 


m. com. f. 

sallaht (I mended, etc.). 
sallaht sallahti 

sallah sallahat 







Sing. 2. ksur (Break). ksuri 






com. f. 

biksur (I break, will break, etc.). 




com. f. 


kesert (I 

broke, etc.). 

S. 2. 








P. j 2. 


^ 3- 






2. khsar (L 








bikhser (I 

lose, will lose, etc.). 





I '• 



p. 2. 


' 3- 




m. com. f. 

khsirt (I lost, etc.). 
khsirt khsirti 

khasir khasiret 


P. ( 2. khsirtu 



m. f. 

Sing. 2. ujad (Find). ujadi 


m. com. f. 

bujad (I find, will find, etc.). 
btujad btujadi 


byujad bitujad 





m. com. 

wajadt (I found, etc.). 
wajadt wajadti 

ajad wajadet 







TO CHANGE, (transitive). 


Sing. 2. ghaiyir (Change). 


S. 2 






m. com. 

bghaiyir (I change, will change, etc.). 
btghaiyir btghaiyiri 








ghaiyert (I changed, etc.). 






Sing. 2. b'at (Send). 







com. f. 
bib'at (I send, will send, etc.) 






















I '• 

ba'att (I 

sent, etc.). 




' 3. 



I '' 


1 ^* 


' 3- 






2. df'a (Pay). 






( '• 

bidf'a (I 

pay, will pay, etc.) 




' 3. 



1 ^• 










m. com. f. 

dfa at (I paid, etc.). 
dfa'at dfa'ati 

def'a def'at 







Sing. 2. shtri (Buy). 












bishtri (I buy, will buy, etc.). 






shtrait (shtreyt) (I bought, etc.). 







Sing. 2. bi'a (Sell). 


S. 2 
' 3 






bbi'a (I 


will sell, 












Sing. 2. Naddif. (Clean) 

be'ut (I sold, 


















bnaddif (I 

clean, will clean, etc.). 





















1 ^* 
' 3- 

naddaft (I cleaned, etc.). 
naddaft naddafti 
naddaf naddafat 






m. f. 
2. haddir (Prepare). haddri 





m. com. f. 

bhaddir (I prepare, will prepare, etc.) 

bthaddir bthaddri 

bihaddir bithaddir 








m. com. f. 

haddert (I prepared, etc. 
haddert hadderti 

hadder hadderet 









Sing. 2. hki (Speak). 





com. f. 

behki (I speak, will speak, etc.). 



com. f. 

hakait (hakeyt) (I spoke, etc.). 
hakait hakaiti 

haki (fhka) hakit . 









Sing. 2. sm'a (Hear). 






com. f. 

bism'a (I hear, will hear, etc. 


mnism a 



sma'at (I 

heard, etc.). 

















. 2. shuf ( 












bshuf (I see, 

will see, etc.) 


















shuft (I saw. 


















2. 'arif (K 








b'arif (I know, will know, etc 





















( '• 

*arift (I knew, etc.). 







( '• 










2. ferrji ( 







I ■• 

bferrji (I show, will show, etc.). 




' 3- 



I '• 




' 3- 





1 '• 

ferrjait (ferrjeyt) (I showed, etc.). 




' 3- 














m. com. f. 

1. bi"dir (bu"dir) (be'dir) (I can, etc.). 

2. bti'*dir (btu'dir) bti"diri (btu"diri) 

3. byi'Mir (byu"dir) biti"dir (bitu"dir) 

1. mni"dir (mnu"dir) 

2. bti'diru (btu *diru) 

3. byi"diru (byu"diru) 




m. com. f. 

"edirt (I could, etc.). 
'edirt "edirti 

'ider ("eder) "fdrit ("edrit) 




Cardinal numbers. 

1. wehid (ahad). 

2. itneyn. 

3. tleti. 

4. arb*a. 

5. khamsi. 

6. sitti. 

7. seb'a. 

8. tmeni. 

9. tis*a. 

10. 'ashra. 

11. hid'ash. 

12. itn'ash. 

13. tlit'ash. 

14. arb'at'ash. 

15. khamst'ash. 

16. sitt'ash. 

17. seb'at'ash. 

18. tmunt'ash. 

19. tis'at'ash. 

20. 'eshrin. 

21. wehid u 'eshrin. 


30. tletin. 800. tmenmiyi. 

40. arbe'in. 900. tis'a miyi. 

50. khamsin. icx)0. alf. 

60. sittin. 1 100. alf u miyi. 

70. sebe'in. 1250. alf u miteyn u khamsin. 

80. tmenin. 2000. alfeyn. 

90. tise'in. 10,000. *ashert elef. 

100. miyi. 20,000. 'eshrin alf. 

200. miteyn. 100,000. miyet alf. 

300. tletmiyi. 200,000. miteyn alf. 

400. arb*amiyi. 1,000,000. miliyon. 

500. khamsmiyi. 2,000,000. miliyoneyn. 

600. sittmiyi. 4,000,000. arb'a melaiyin. 
700. seb'amiyi. 

The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 inclusive are 
followed by the noun in the plural. All subsequent 
numbers are followed by the singular. 

e. g. Tlet urtel sikker. Three rottels of sugar. 
Arb'a rus kheyl. Four head of horses. 
Khamst'ashir ras kheyl. Fifteen head of horses. 

^ Ordinal numbers. 

I St owwel. 4th rab'i. 7th seb'i. lOth *ashir. 

2nd t^ni. 5th khamis. 8th temin. 

3rd telit. 6th s^dis. 9th tes*i. 

After ten the cardinal numbers are used in conver- 
sation instead of the ordinals. 

When an ordinal number is used it precedes the 
noun, e. g. t6ni marra, the second time. 

half, nuss; whole, kill; quarter, rub'a; add, jm*a; mult- 
iply, drub; divide, u"sum; subtract, trSh or us^u^. 


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The following adverbs and adverbial locutions 
are in common use. 


accidentally; by accident. 


ago (long). 


again; besides. 










around ; all round. 


average (on an). 







beyond everything. 


certainly; without doubt. 

bila m'ana. 

bi sudfi; bil-'arad. 


min zemen. 


kamen; b'ad. 


'al al-'ali. 


aidan; kamen. 

killun sawa. 


min jdid. 

'ala wahd-uh (with pro. suff.). 


'ala de'ir. 


'ala m'addal. 

we'i; faiyi". 

ila wara. 



ma'ada; kam^n; fadlan *an. 


fow" kill shey (shi). 


m'alum; ma" fura; ilia. 










contrary (on the). 

day by day. 

day (by). 

day (all). 

deliberately; slowly. 






early; in the morning. 

earnest (in). 








ever (for). 




face to face. 

bil-akhas; khususan. 



bil-killiyi; tam^men. 

'ala shart. 


de'imen; 'ala dewam. 

bil-'aks; bil-khilaf. 

yowm b*ad yowm. 


kill an-nahar. 

'ala mahl-uh (with pro. suflf.). 


bi wejheyn wilseneyn (with 

two faces and two tongues). 
bila shekk; bidun shubhi. 
ila taht; (i nezli. 

bekkir; 'ala bukra ('a bukra). 
min jedd. 

bila niheyi; ma luh ekhir. 
bikeffi (it is sufficient). 
bit-temem; bil-kemel. 
bi now' khususi; khususan. 
ila akhiri. 
ktir ktir; lil-ghaiyi. 
bi ziedi. 


fact (in). 


far, from afar. 



bi-sur'a; seri'an. 



first, at first, in the first place 

:. owwel; owwelen. 

foot (on). 


force (by). 

bil-"uwi; jebran. 

formerly, previously. 



ila "iddem. 

future (in). 


general (in). 

'umumen; *itiyadiyen. 

gently (slowly). 

'ala mahl-uh (with pro. suff. 

. (kindly). 

bi lutf. 

God forbid. 

Allah la yismah. 

„ (thank). 

al-hamd ul-illah. 

„ (would to), I hope. 



m'as-salemi ; khatir-kum.. 

halves (in), (by). 



bi s'ubi; bil-kedd. 


min hown. 


hown, howni. 

here and there. 

hown u hown. 


ila hown. 


li hadd al-wa"t. 


kif (keyf). 


m'a ielik. 

how many. 


how much. 

"add esh. 

immediately, at once. 

"aw6m; fil-hal. 

impunity (with). 

bila "isas. 









inside out. 

instance (for). 



just so. 


land (on). 

last (at). 


lately, latterly. 




little by little. 

matter (no), never mind. 








never, not at all, on no 

not quite, 


juwwa; dekhil. 

'al al-"elb. 

meselen (m^telen). 


ila juwwa. 


bil-'adl; bil-ha"". 

'al al-berr. 







shwayi shwayi. 

ma biseyl. 

fi hal-fursa; SX esna. 

bes; fa"at. 




'*arib; min "arib; ta"riban. 

daruri; daruriyen. 


m*a zelik. 

lissa; b'ad ma. 

halla" (contr. from haza al- 
wa"t, at this time) and issa 
(contr. from haza as-se'a, at 
this hour). 


now and then. 


now or never. 

wa ilia fa la. 


n hal-iyem. 






bes; fa^at. 

openly, publicly. 

jehran (jiharan). 




wa ilia. 


berra; ila berra; min berra. 


ila berra. 

partly — partly. 

ba'ad-uh haik-ba*ad-uh haik. 

particular (in). 


per cent. 


perhaps, possibly. 

yumkin; belki (berki). 


bi zet-uh (with pro suflf.). 



plenty (in). 

bi kitra. 


bi t^'ekid. 

present (at). 

halla"; fiil-hal. 


b'ad shwayi. 





purpose (on). 



"aw^m; bil-'ajeli. 


'ala mahl-uh (with pro. suff.). 


tam^men; bil-killiyi. 

random (at). 

bila "asd; bila fikr. 




*al ar-ras wal-*ain (on head 

and eye). 




reason (in). 



haseb al-*'an6n. 



rule (as a). 



m'as-salemi; bil-amen. 

same (all the). 

sawa; mitl ba'ad-uh. 






wahd-uh wahd-uh. 


bi jedd. 

short (in). 

bil-ikhtisar; al-hasil. 

shortly, presently. 

b'ad "alii; b'ad shwayi. 



simply, solely. 

bes; fa"at. 


killwehid wahd-uh. 


'ala mahl-uh (with pro sufif.). 

so, thus. 

haik (heyk). 

so and so. 

fulan (f.) fulani (of persons); 

keza wa keza (of things). 


bi hudu. 


kif ma k^n. 




a mek^n. 

still, yet. 

kamen; b'ad. 

straight, in a straight line. 

rasan; 'ala khatt musta"im. 


baghteten: fajaten. 


kettir khair-ak; sellim daiyat- 

ak (lit. may God preserve 

your hands) ; eywah (eywal- 



sum; b'adeyn. 


min hownik. 



hownik, howniki. 


li z^lik. 


ila hownik. 

time (up to this). 

lissa (contr. from li haza as- 

se'a, to this hour). 

„ (at the same). 

fil-wa 't z^t-uh; fi nefs al-wa*'t. 

time (in). 

fl wa"t-uh. 


sawa; ma'an. 

too little. 

"alii ktir. 

too much. 

bi ziedi. 




ha" "an. 

trust (on). 

'al al-ameni. 

turn (in). 

bid-dowr; bin-nowbi. 




'ala ghafli. 


bila mitel. 


bila "asd. 


ghasban *an-nuh. 

up hill. 

ila fow"; n tara. 




*abes ; bila fd'idi ; ma biyinf a 

vain (in). 

'abes; batilan. 






esh; shu. 


esh ma. 


aimtin (aimta), eymta. 


ay wa"t. 


mineyn (mneyn). 

where ? 



weyn ma. 



whether or no. 

iza ow la. 

whither ? 

liweyn (leyn). 


lesh (contr. from li ay shey, 

to what thing). 

word (in a). 

al-hasil; bi kilmi wehdi. 


n'am (said to equals and su- 

periors). N'am also means 

"what?" or "I beg your par- 

don?" when the repetition of 

any thing said is desired. 

yes certainly, surely. 

eh (said to inferiors) ; ey n'am 

(ay n*am); eywah (aywah) 

contr. from ay wallah, yes 

by God. 

yet; not yet. 

b*ad; lissa ma. 



b*ad ma; b*ad ann. 


m'a inn (with pro. suff.). 


wa, u. 

as, because. 

hais ann. (with pro. suff.). 

kif ma. 

as if. 

ka; ka ann (with pro. suff.), 

as long as. 


as soon as. 

bes; Hmma; hal ma. 


"abl ma. 


lekin; wa amma. 

either — or. 





iza; low (with past tense). 

izaken, inken (with pres.). 


in so far as. 

"add ma. 

instead of. 

bedel ma. 


la wa la. 


ow; am. 



provided that. 

'ala shart ann (with pro. suff.). 


b'ad ma; hmma. 

so that, in order that. 

hatta, ta. 




inn or ann (with pro. suff.). 


low la; iza ma; izaken ma. 


hatta ma. 


'indama; halama; limma; 
wa"t illi. 






bidun ma. 


Ah! alas! 

a; akh. 

By God ! 


God preserve you! 

Allah yahfaz-ak 
Allah yusellim-ak. 

God give you a safe 

1 jour- 

Allah yuwassl-ak bi-salemi. 

ney ! 

In God's name! 


For God's sake! 

minshen Allah. 

Long life to you! 

towwil *umr-ak. 

I beg your leave. 

khatir-kum; 6wd'ana-kum (we 

have placed you in God's 

hands, said on leaving anyone). 



By your leave! 
Look out! make way! 
Take care! 

Come on ! go on ! let us go ! 

Capital ! 

I congratulate you. 

Farewell ! goodbye ! 
Fire! Fire! 
Help! help! 
Look! look! 
Mercy ! 

Please! I beg of you! 

O neighbours! 

O my friend ! 

O boy! waiter! 

O my soul! 

O my heart! 

O my eyes! 

O light of my eyes! 

O my father! 

O my master! O Sir! 

O sir ! (servant to his master) 

O treasure of my heart! 

Shame! shame! 

Disgraceful ! 

Well done! bravo! 


ua ua. 

dahr-ak (your back). 

dir bel-ak (turn your attention). 

yallah (lit. O God!). 


heniyen (said to any one after 
drinking water). 

de'imi (said to a host after 
drinking his coffee "may 
you always have guests"). 


hari" hari". 

ya ahl al-muruwi ; aman aman. 

wai wai. 

aman aman. 

dakhl Allah. 

'amul m*aruf; dakhl-ak. 

ya ahl jiri. 

ya habib-i. 

ya walad. 

ya ruh-i. 

ya kibd-i. 

ya 'yun-i. 

ya nur 'ain-i. 

ya abu-na (said to priests). 

ya khowaja. 

ya sid-i (lit. O lord!). 

ya muhjet "elb-i. 






Welcome ! 

ahla u sahla. 

bismilli; 'ala ras-i. 

Would that 

Inshallah (if God wills). 

What a pity 

dey'an-uh (lit. we have lost 

it); ya khsara. 

The seasons. 





as-saif (seyf). 






The months. 


kenun at-teni. 








iyar (nuwar). 










teshrin al-owwel. 


teshrin at-teni. 


kenun al-owwel. 


Days of the week. 

iyem aj-jim'a. 



















This year. 


Last year. 

') sint al-madi. 

Next year. 

sint aj-jei. 

r» V 

sint al-"admi. 

Two years ago. 

min sinteyn. 

Three years ago. 

min thet snin. 

Every year. 

kill sini. 

All the year. 

kill as-sini. 

I) In Damascus 'am al-owwel. 

Next month. 

shehr aj-jei. 

Last month. 

shehr al-madi. 


kill shehr. 

This week. 


Next week. 

jim'at aj-j^i'. 

Last week. 

jim'at al-madi. 

Every week. 

kill jim'a. 

A few weeks ago. 

min kam jim'a. 

This day next week. 

b*ad jim'a. 

In a fortnight. 

ba'd khamst 'ashir 


For a long time. 

middi tawili. 









This morning. 

This evening. 

All day. 

Every day. 

Two days ago. 

Three days ago. 


All night. 

Late at night. 




The day after 
The day before 

al-yowm'a bukra. 
al-yowm min 'ashiyi, 
kill an-nahar. 
kill yowm. 
min yowmeyn. 
min tlet iyem. 
kill al-leyl. 
ekhir al-leyl. 
nuss leyl. 
tlu'a ash-shems. 
ghiyeb ash-shems. 
tomorrow. b'ad bukra. 
yesterday. owwelt imbereh. 

The hour, as-se'a. 

What time is it? 

t is 12 o'clock. 

t is I o'clock. 

t is 2 o'clock. 

t is a quarter past two. 

t is half past two. 

t is a quarter to three. 

t is ten minutes to four. 

t is five minutes past four. 

t is 6 o'clock exactly. 
The clock is fast. 
The clock is slow. 
The clock has stopped. 

"add esh s^'a. 
s^'a tn'ash. 
s6'a w^hdi. 
se'a tinteyn. 
se'a tinteyn u rub'a. 
se'a tinteyn u nuss. 
se'a tleti ila rub'a. 
s^'a arb'a ila 'ashra. 
s^'a arb'a u khamsi. 
se'a sitti tamem. 
as-s^'a bittsabbi". 
as-s^'a bitta 'akhkhir. 
as-se'a wa"afat. 

PART 11. 





abandon^ v. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk, p.p. matruk. 

abashedy to be, v. n. bikhjel, khijilt (min), p.p. makhjul. 

abbreviate^ v. a. bukhtisir, khtasert, khtisir, p.p. mukhtaser. 

abdicate, v. btnazel, tnazelt, tnazel ('an). 

ability, n. shatara; mahara. 

able, a. mu**tidir; "adir (*'edir); to be able, v. n. bi"dir 

(bu'dir), "edirt. 
abliitiofi, n. wudu; to perform ablutions, v. n. bitwaddu, 

twaddait, twadda. 
abolish, v. a. bbuttil, battalt, battil; abolished, batil; 

abounds (it), mowjud; wajd bi kitra. 

Note. Verbs are given in the i" person singular present and past 
tenses and the a""* person singular imperative. When other parts are 
given they are indicated. 

When a verb is followed by a preposition the latter is given in 
brackets after it. 

Only passive participles in use are given. 

Plurals of nouns and adjectives not indicated are regular. 

When the pronunciation of words greatly varies an alternative is 
given in brackets. 


abouti ad. "arib; ta"riban; pr. bkhusus; *ala. 

above, pr. fow" (fo"); above all, fow" al-kill. 

abscond, v. n. bihrub, harabt, hrub(min); bfirr, ferrait, firr. 

absence, n. ghiy^b. 

absent, to be, v. n. bghib, ghibt or kint ghaiyib, ghib 

('an); absent-minded, fikr-uh ghaiyib. 
absolute, a. mutla". 
absurd, a. mustahil; ad. bila m'ana. 
abtmdafice, n. kitra; abundantly, ad. bi kitra. 
abuse, v. a. bbahdil, bahdilt, bahdil ; bishtum, shetemt, 

abuse, n. msebbi; b^hdeli. 
accelerate, v. a. b'ajjil, 'ajjelt, 'ajjil. 
accept, V. a. bi"bel, "ibilt, "ibel, p.p. ma"bul. 
accident, n. hadisi p. hawadis; 'arid p. 'awarid; by accident, 

ad. bi sudfi; bil-'arad. 
accompany, v. ai brefi", refa"t, reft". 
accomplice, n. mushtirik fi zenb. 
accomplish, v.a. bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil,p.p.mkemmel; 

btemmim, temmemt, temmim, p.p. mtemmem. 
according, to, ad. haseb; bi mowjab; according to cir- 
cumstances, haseb az-zuruf. 
account, n. hiseb p. hisebet; (story) riweyi p. ruwaiy^t. 
accjimulate, v. a. bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a, p.p. mejmu'a. 
accuracy, n. sahha; zabt (dabt). 
accurate, a. sahih ; mazbut ; dughri. 
accusation, w. tehmi p. tehmet c. p. tehm; shekvva p. 

accuse, (of), V. a. bit-hum, tahemt, t-hum (^). 
accuser, n. mushtlki; sheki. 
accustom (oneself to), v. n. bit'owwad, t'owwadt ('ala), 

p.p. mu'ated. 


V. a. b'owwid, *owwadt, 'owwid ('ala), p.p. m'owwad. 
ace, n. ass. 
achey V. n. (3rd per.) biyuj'a, waj'a or k^n yuj*a; my 

head aches y ras-i biyuj'a-ni. n. waj'a p. ovvje'a. 
acidy a. hamud f. hamda. 
acortiy n. balluta p. ballut. 
acquaintance, n. m'arifi p. ma'arif. 

acquircy v. a. bhassil, hassalt, hassil; v. bihsul, hasalt ('ala). 
acquisition, n. tahsil. 
acquity v. a. bberri, berrait, berri, p.p. mberra; to be 

acquitted, bitberra, tberrait. 
acquittal, n. tebria. 
Acre, Akka. 

across, ad. min jeha ila jeha. 
act {actioti), n. 'amel p. a'mel ; to bring an action againsty 

V. bitlub-uh, talabt-uh lil-mahkemi ; v. a. bhakim, hakamt, 

active, a neshit (nishit). 
actualy a ba"i"i. 

adapt (to)y V. a. bwefi", wafa"t ('ala), p.p. mw^fi". 
addy V. a. bzid, zidt, zid ; added, ze'id ; add tip, v. a. 

bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a, p.p. mejmu'a. 
additiofty n. j^m'a. 

addressy n. 'unwen ('ilwan) p. 'unwenet. 
adjectivey n. n'at. 
admirabUy a. 'aal. 
admiraly n. amiral p. amiraliyi. 
admire (to praise )y v. a. bimdah, madaht, mdah ; / admire 

(am pleased with) anythingy bi'ajib-ni, 'ajab-ni 

admissible y a. jeyiz. 

admity V. bi"bel, "ibilt, "ibd {V\ or bi), p.p. ma"bul; 

bsellim, sellemt, sellim (fi), p.p. msellem. 



admonishy v. bnebbih, nebbeht, nebbih ('ala). 

admonitioriy n. nasiha; tenbih. 

adopt (of measures), v. a. bittikhiz, ttakhazt, ttikhiz ; {of 

a child), V. a. bitbenna, tbennait, tbenna. 
adoration, n. 'ibedi. 
adore, v. a. be'abed, 'abidt, 'abed. 
adoryi, v. a. bzeyyin, zeyyent, zeyyin, p.p. mzeyyen. 
adulterate, v. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh, p.p. 

adultery, n. zina. 
advance (money), v. a. bsellif, silleft, sellif ; (proceed) v. n. 

bit"addam, ta"addemt, ta"addam ; advance guard, ta- 

li'at aj-jeysh; advanced in years, ta'in fis-sinn. 
advantage, n. fe'idi p. fwe'id. 
advantageous, a. nefi; mufid. 
adversary, n. khism p. akhsam. 
adversity, n. msibi p. msaiyib. 
advertise, v. a. b*alin, 'alant, 'alin. 
advertisement, n. e'alen p. e'alenet. 
advice, n. nasiha. 
advise, v. a. binsah, nasaht, nsah. 

affair, n. shighl (shughl) p. ashghel; "adiyi p. "adaiya. 
affected, a. mutsann'a. 
affection, n. mahabbi; hunu. 
affiance, (to), v. a. bkhattib, khattabt, khattib (ila) ; af- 

Jianced, a. khatib. 
affidavit, n. hilfen; yemin; to make an affidavit, v. n. 

bihluf, halaft, hluf. 
affirm, v. b'ekkid, akkedt, ekkid (li) p.p. m'ekked. 
affix, (to), V. a. blazzi", lazza'*t, lazzi" ('ala). 
affiict, V. a. (3rd per.) bikeddir, kedder; it affiicts me, 



affluence, n. ghina. 

affro7it, n. iheni ; v. a. bhin, hint, hin. 

afloat, a. feyish; 'aiyim. 

afraid, (of), v. n. bkhaf, khift (donH be afraid) la tkhaf 

(min) ; bifz'a, fze'at (min) ; a. fez'an ; khaiyif. 
Africa, Afrikia; african, afriki. 
after, pr. b'ad ; con. b'ad ma, b'ad ann. 
afternoon, ad. b'ad ad-dohr. 
afterwards, ad. b'adeyn. 
again, ad. kamen ; b'ad ; aidan ; again and again, kamen 

u kam^n. 
against, pr. 'ala; dudd; agaifist my will, dudd khatr-i. 
age, n. 'umr; (century) jil p. ajiyel; 'asr. 
agency, n. wekeli p. wekelet. 
agejit, n. wekil p. wukela. 
agile, a. herik. 

agility, n. sir'a; khiffi; hareki. 
agony, n. neze'a. 
agree, (to), v. bi"bel, "ibilt, "ibel (fi or bi); birda, irdit, 

irda (fi or bi). 
agreeable, a. mlih p. mlah; ma"bul. 
agreement, n. teswi; ittif^" (ittifa"). 
agriculture, n. fleha (felaha). 
agtie, n. dowriyi ; berdiyi. 
ahead, ad. "iddem. 
aid, n. mse'adi. 
ail, V. n. biskhun, sakhant. 
aim (object), n. "asd ; ghaiyi; gharad ; (in shooting) nishi6n ; 

aim (at) v. n. bitneshin, tn^shent, tneshen ('ala). 
air, n. hawa; (of music) lahn; (appearance) manzar; v. a. 

bhowwi, howwait, howwi. 
alarm, n. khowf; fez'a; r'abi. 


alcohol, n. sbirto; alkohul. 

Aleppo, Haleb. 

alerty a. mutiya"iz^. 

Alexandretta, Skenderuna. 

Alexandria^ Iskenderiya. 

alien J n. ejnebi p. ajenib. 

alight, (from), v. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel (min); alight at, 

V. n. binzel fi. 
alight, a. sha'len. 

alike, a. mutsewi; ad. mitl ba'ad-uh (with pro. suff.) 
alive, a. taiyib. 
all, n. and a. kill (kuU). 
allegiance, n. ta'a. 

alleviate, v. a. bkhaffif, khaffeft, khaffif. 
alliance, n. ma'ahedi; mhalif. 
allow, V. bismah, semaht, smah (li). 
allowance, n. ma'ash; ratib. 
alloy, n. khalit; mezij. 
allure, v. a. bistemil, stemelt, stemil. 
allurement, n. istim^li. 
ally, n. halif p. hulefa. 
ahfianack, n. riznemi p. riznemet. 
Ahnighty (the), "adir 'ala kill shi. 
almojid, n. lowzi p. lowz; almond tree, lowzi. 
almost, ad. "arib. 
alms, n. sada"a. 
aloe, n. sabr (subber). 
alo7ie, a. wahd-uh (with pro. suff.); / let him alone, bi- 

truk-uh wahd-uh; ad. 'ala wahd-uh. 
along, pr. 'ala tul (at-tul). 
alongside of, pr. bi-jenib; jenb. 
aloud, ad. 'al al-'ali. 


alphabet, n. difbe. 

already, ad. "ablan. 

also, ad. kamen; aidan. 

altar, n. medbah p. mdebih. 

alter, v. a. bghaiyir, ghaiyert, ghaiyir. 

V. n. bitghaiyir, tghaiyert, tghaiyir p.p. mutghaiyir. 
altercation, n. mkhasemi. 
although, con. m'a inn. 
altitude, n. irtife'a; 'ulu. 

altogether, ad. kill-un sawa; jumli; 'ala ba'ad-uh. 
almn, n. shebbi. 
always, ad. de'imen. 

amass, v. a. bkowwim, kowwamt, kowwim. 
ambassador, n. sefir p. sufera. 
amber, n. amber. 
ambition, n. tam*a. 
ambitious, a. tamma'a. 
amble, v. n. (3rd per.) birahwin, rah wan. 
ambler, n. rahwen. 
ambuscade, n. kemin. 
America, Amerika; american, amerikeni. 
amiable, a. latif p. lutafa. 
ammimitioji, n. jebakhani; zakhra. 
amnesty, n. 'afu. 
amottg, pr. beyn. 
amoutit, n. meblagh p. mbeligh. 
ample, a. k^fi; w^s'i. 

amputate, v. a. b"uss, "assait, "uss p.p. ma"sus, 
amulet, n. hirz p. huruz. 
amuse, v. a. bselli, selleyt, selli ; v. a. (3rd per.) it amuses 

me, biyubsut-ni, basat-ni; to be amused, binbusit, in- 



amusement, n. tesliyi; lahu. 

ancestor t n. jidd p. ajded. 

anchor, n. yatir; mirsi; v. n. birsi, rsit, irsi; at anchor, resi. 

ancient, a. *ati" p. 'utu"; "adim p. "udm. 

and, con. waj u. 

anecdote, n. "issa p. "isas; hikeyi p. hikeyet. 

anemo7ie, n. sha*'shi" (shi"e"). 

anew, ad. min jdid. 

angel, n. melak p. melai'eki. 

anger, n. ghadab; za'al; ghaiz. 

angle, n. zewi p. zawaiya; "irni p. "arani. 

angry, to be, (with), v. n. biz'al, zi'ilt (min); binghaz, 

inghazt (min). / am angry, ana z'alen, kint z'alen; to 

make ayigry, v. a. biz'el, za'alt, zu'ul. 
animal, n. haiwen p. haiwen^t; dabbi p. dawab. 
animosity, n. 'ad^wi. 
ankle, n. kehil p. kewehil. 
annex (to), v. a. busul, wasalt, usul (usfl), (bi), p.p. mowsul ; 

bdumm, dammait, dumm (ila). 
announce, v. a bkhabbir, khabbert, khabbir ('an, of the 

annoy, v. a. biz'el, za'alt, zu'ul ; it amioys me, biyiz'el-ni, 

annul, v. a. bbuttil, battalt, battil; annulled, a. batil 

anoint, v. a. bimsah, masaht, msah. 
another, a. ghair-uh (with pro. suff.). 
answer, n. jeweb p. jewebet; v. a. bjewib, jewabt, j^wib. 
ant, n. nemli p. nemel. 
Antioch, Antakiyi. 
anvil, n. sidden (sinden). 
anxiety, n. inshighal bel; "ala". 


ayixionSy a. meshghul al-fikr; "al"an; (desirous) a. mush- 

tah (li). 
any^ a. ahad; anybody y hada; anything, shi (shey). 
apart, ad. 'ala jenib; 'ala wahd-uh. 
aperient, n. mus-hil (mis-hil). 
apologise (to), v. n. be'itizir, etazert, e'itizir (ila). 
apology, n. 'uzrj 'itizar. 
apoplexy, n. sakti. 
apostle, n. resul p. risl. 
apothecary, n. farmashyeni ; saideli; apothecary's shop, 

farmashia; saideliyi. 
apparent, a. zahir; apparently, ad. zahiran. 
appeal (ask for help) v. a. bistenjid, stenjedt, stenjid; 

(judicial) v. n. biste'nif, ste'neft, ste'nif. 
appear, v. n. bizhar, zahert, izhar. 
appearance, n. zuhur (zahir); laha. 
appetite, n. "abliyi. 

applaud, v.a. bza""if, za""aft, za""if (li). 
applause, n. tez"if. 
apple, n. tiftcha p. tefifeh. 
apply (use) v. a. bista'mil, sta'melt, sta'mil ; v. a. (pnt on) 

bhutt, hattait, hutt ('ala); (ask) v.a. bi"sud, "asadt, 

appoint, V. a. b'aiyin, 'aiyent, 'aiyin p.p. m'aiyen ; to be 

appointed, bitvvazzaf, twazzaft. 
appointment, n. wazifi p. wazaiyif; ma'muriyi; merkez 

p. merakiz. 
apprentice, n. san'i p. sunna'a. 
approach, v. b'*errib, "errabt, "errib (li). 
approval, n. istahsen. 
approve, v. a. bistahsin, stahsent, stahsin. 
apricot, n. mishmshi p. mishmish ; apricot-tree, mishmshi. 


Aprily n. nisan. 

apron, n. wazra; (child'' s) mariul p. marawil. 

aqtudticty n. "anayit mai p. "anawat. 

Arabia, beled al-'arab; Arab, n. 'Arabi p. 'Urben; arabic, 

a. 'arabi; classical arabic, 'arabi fasih; vulgar arabic, 

'arabi derij. 
arbitrary, a. mustebidd. 
arbour, n. s"eli p. s"eyil; "ibbet khasheb. 
arcJi, n. "antara p. "anatir. 
archbishop, n. raiyis asa"fi. 

archer, n. "uwwas p. "owwasa ; rami sihm p. rumet sihm. 
architect, n. mhendis. 
architecture, n. hendisi; resm; na"sh. 
archives, n. p. sijillet ; ovvra". 
ardour, n. hamesi. 
area, n. mseht al-ard. 
argue (about) v. bjedil, jedelt, jedil (fi). 
argument [proof), n. burhan p. berahin; (dispute) jdel. 
arithmetic, n. 'ilm al-hiseb. 
ark, n. (Noah's ark) filk Nuh. 
arjH, n. id d. ideyn; fore-arm, dr'a p. udr'u; zind p. 

znud; (weapon) sleh (slehi) p. esliha; arms alet harb. 
armour, n. dir'a. a'\ 

armpit, n. bat p. batat. 
army, n. jeysh p. jiyush; m'asker. 
arou7td, ad. howl; min de'ir; all round, 'ala de'ir. 
arouse, v. a. bfeyyi", feyya"t, feyyi" ; bnebbih, nebbeht, 

arrange, v. a. bdebbir, debbert, debbir; bsewi, saweyt, 

sewi p.p. msewa. 
arrangement, n. teswi; tedbir p. tedebir. 
arrears, n. p. ba"aiya. 


arrest^ v. a. bikmish, kmesht, kmush; bimsik, mesakt, 

arrival^ n. wusul. 
arrive f v. n. busal, wusult. 
arrogance, n. tekebbur; kibriya. 
arrogant y a. mutkebbir; muta'ajrif. 
arrow, n. sihm p. sihem. 
arse?iiCy n. zernikh; semm al-far. 
artf n. fenn p. finun; {craft) san'a p. sanaiy'a. 
artery, n. shirien p. sheraiyin. 
artichoke, n. ardishowki. 
articulate, v. n. bilfuz, lafazt, Ifuz. 
artificial, a. istina'i. 
artillery, n. topkhana; medfai*a; artilleryman topji p. 

as, ad. mitl; ka; con. mitlma; hais ann (with pro. suff.) ; 

as long as, madem; as soon as, bes; limma; halma; 

as if, ka; ka inn (with pro. suff.). 
ascend, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala). 
ascent, n. taFa. 
ascertaifi, v. bistakhbir, stakhbert, stakhbir ('an) ; v. a. 

bha""i", ha""a"t, ha""i". 
ash (tree), n. lis^n al-'asfur. 
ashamed, to be (of) v. n. bistihi, stahait (min) ; ashamed, 

a. makhjul. 
ashes, n. p. rim^d. 
ashore, ad. al-berr; 'al al-berr. 
ash-tray, n. sahn sikara; manfada p. mnafid. 
Asia, Asia; asiatic, a. asiawi. 
aside, ad. 'ala jenib. 
ask (a question), v. a. bis'el, sa'elt, (s'el. 
asleep, a. n^yim; ra"id. 


asparagus, n. haliyun. 

assassin, n. "etil p. "utela. 

assassinate, v. a. bi"tul, "atalt, u"tul p.p. ma"tul. 

assassination, n. "atl. 

assault, V. bihjum, hajamt, hjum ('ala) ; n. hujum; mhajemi. 

assemble, v. a. bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a; v. n. (3rd per. p.) 

biyijtim'u, ijtem'au. 
assetnbly, n. jeme'i; ijtima'a. 
assent, v. birda, irdit, irda (fi or bi). 
assessor, n. mtemmin; mkhammin. 
assets, n. p. mowjudet. 
assist, V. a. bse'id, se'adt, se'id. 
assistance, n. mse'adi. 
associate, n. sherik p. shureka. 
assurance, n. te'ekid; {boldness) jesara. 
assure, v. b'ekkid, akkedt, ekkid (li). 
astern, ad. wara; astern of the ship, wara al-merkeb. 
astonish, v. a. (3rd per.) bidhish, dahesh p.p. medhush ; 

it astonishes me, bi'ajjib-ni, 'ajjab-ni; to be ast07iished, 

V. n. bit'ajjab, t*ajjebt. p.p. mut'ajjib. 
astonishment, n. dehshi; t'ajjub. 
asylum (for the insane) n. meristen. 
at, pr. fi; 'ind; bi; ad. at all, abaden; mnowb. (mnob). 
atheist, n. kefir. 
Athens, Atina. 
attach, (to) v. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut (bi); [hang up) 

v.a. b'alli", 'alla"t, 'alii" (bi).* 
attack, V. bihjum, hajamt, hjum ('ala); n. hujum. 
attempt, v. n. bijtihid, ijtahadt, ijtihid; bjerrib, jerrabt, 

jerrib; n. ijtihad; tijrubi p. tejerib. 
attend (be present at) v. n. behdar, hadert, hdar (fi); 

[pay attention to) v. bintfbih, intebeht, intibih (ila). 


attentioriy n. intibeh ; pay attention! intfbih li ; dir b61-ak 'ala. 

attentive^ a muntibih. 

attest, V. bsadi", sada"t, sadi" ('ala) p.p. msadda". 

attitude, n. haiya; hala (hali). 

attorney, n. wekil da'awi; avokat. 

attract, v. a. bijzub, jezebt, jzub. 

auction, n. mezed ; to sell by — , bbi'a, be'ut bil-mezed ; 

to buy by — , bishtri, shtrait bil-mezed. 
August, n. eb. 

aunt, n. (paterrial) 'ammi; (maternal) khali. 
auspicious, a. sa'id. 
Australia, Ustralia. 

Austria, Nemsa; austrian, a. nemsewi. 
author, n. mu'ellif; ketib. 
authority, n. sulta. 

authorize, v. a. bfowwid, fowwadt, fowwid. 
autograph, n. imda. 
autumn, n. al-kharif. 
avarice, n. bikhl. 
avaricious, a. bakhil p. bukhal. 
a'denge, v. bekhud, akhadt at-tar ; / avenged you, akhadt 

bi tar-ak. 
average, a. m'addal; on an average, 'ala m*addal. 
avert, v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a. 
avoid, V. bib'ud, ba'adt, bu'ud ('an) ; bibt'id, ibt'adt, bt'id 

(*an or min); bitjennib, tjennebt, tjennib ('an or min). 
await, V. a. bistanzir, stanzert, stanzir ; bintlzir, intazert, 

awake, v. n. bf i", fi"t, fi" ; bu'a, wa'it, wu'a ; a. w^'i ; faiyi". 
awkward, a. ghashim; [difficult) s'ab. 
axe, n. ferra'a; fes p. fus; balta. 
axle, n. m'awel. 



baby^ n. tifl p. atfal; walad zghir. 

bachelor y n. 'azeb p. 'uzben c. p. 'azzebi. 

backy n. dahr; "afa; behind my backy wara dahr-i. 

backgavimon, n. da"" towli. 

backward (tardy ), a. himil; buti. 

backwards y ad. ila wara; go back, rj'a la wara; back- 
wards and forwards, la wara u la "iddem. 

bacony n. lahm khanzir. 

bady a. *aatil, c. 'aatil aktar; redi c. arda; to go baS 
(of frtiit) V. n. (3rd per.) biyihtiri, ihtara; [of meat) 
V. n. (3rd per.) biyirwih, arwah. 

badgey n. nishen p. nieshin; 'alemi. 

bagy n. kis p. kyes; shanta. 

baggage y n. 'afsh ; howeyij ; hmuli. 

baily n. kefeli. 

baity n. tu'um. 

baisey n. jukh serj. 

bake, V. a. bikhbuz, khabazt, khbuz p.p. makhbuz. 

baker, n. khabbez; ferran. 

balancey n. (of weight) mizen ; (of account) rasid ; v. a. 
buzin, wezent, uzin p.p. mowzun; to make balancey 
b'aiyyir, 'aiyyert, 'aiyyir al-mizen. 

balcony y n. tarasina; balkon ; rowshen; kishk. 

baldy a. ajlah p. juluh; asl'a p. sulu'. 

baUy n. beli p. beldt; tard p. trudi. 

bally n. tabi p. tabet; (dance) ballo. 

ballasty n. sabura. 

balloon, n. balun; mintad. 

ballot, n. "ur'a ; v. n. birmi, rmait, rmi "ur'a ('ala). 


balustrade^ n. drabzin (drabzun). 

bambooy n. khaizeran. 

bananay n. mowzi p. mowz; banana tree, mowzi. 

band, n. rabta p. rabtat; (of music) jow"; nowbi; elastic 

band, rabtat mighait. 
bandage, n. rabta p. rabtat. 
banish, v. a. bserkil, serkelt, serkil p.p. mserkel; binfi, 

nefeyt, nfi p.p. minfi. 
bank, n. bank; [river — ) haffi p. haffet c.p. hafefi; Ot- 

t07nan bank, bank al-'osmeni. 
banker, n. serraf p. saiyerif. 
bankiyig, n. srafi. 
bankrupt, n. miflis; maksur. 
bankruptcy, n. ifles. 

banquet, n. 'azimi p. 'aze'im; walimi p. wale'im. 
baptise, v. a. b'ammid, 'ammedt, 'ammid p.p. m'ammad. 
baptism, n. m'amudiyi. 
bar, n. "adib p. "udben; shilf p. shlufi. 
barbarous, a. mutwahish; berberi. 
barber, n. halla". 

bare, a. [naked] 'ariyen; zlait; [of land) jerda; "ar'a. 
bargain, n. bazar ; msewami ; to make a bargain, v. a. 

bfasil, fasalt, fasil; bbezzir bezzert, bezzir. 
barge, n. maon p. mwain; jurm p. jrumi. 
bark, n. [of a tree) "ishri ('*ishr); [of a dog) 'awi; howsh. 

V. n. (3rd per.) biyinbah, nabah; bihush, hesh. 
barley, n. sh'ir. 
barn, n. anbar p. anabir. 
barometer, n. mizen al-hawa; barom^tre. 
barracks, n. "ishli*'. 
barred, a. mshebbek bil-hadid. 
barrel, n. barmil p. baramil; (^/ ^ ^«) Ijadidit al-bariidi. 


barren, a. (of land) Vim; [of women) 'a"ir. 

barricade^ n. sidd p. sdud; {niilit,) mitras p. materis. 

base, a. dun (deni) ; bottom) ases p. aseset ; (of moun- 
tains) sifl; k'ab. 

bashful, a. khajul. 

basin, n. tusht p. tshut ; lekken p. Ik^n. 

basket, n. selli p. slel ; clothes — , sebet p. sbet. 

bastard, n. bandu". 

bat, n. wutwat p. watawit. 

bath, n. hammem p. hamemim; bath-woman, belleni; 
bath-man, hammemji; mkebbis; bath towel, manshfi. 

bathe, v. n. bt-hammam, t-hammemt, t-hammem. 

battalion, n. tabur p. twabir. 

battle, n. wa"*a p. wa'"at; m'areki p. ma'arik. 

bay, n. khalij p. khiljen. 

bayonet, n. singhi p. singhet; harbi p. harbet. 

bazar, n. su'* p. aswa". 

be, V. / was, kint ; he was, k^n ; be, kun ; there will be 
bisir; there was, sar i^ide grammar, verb 'to be'). 

beach, n. shatt. 

beacon, n. "abuli ('*abili) p. "abebil ("ab^'il). 

bead, n. kharazi p. kharaz; habbi p. hbub. 

beak, n. min"ad. 

bea^n, n. jisr p. jesura. 

bean, n. (french) lubiyi ; (haricot) fasulia. 

bear (to produce, of the earth) v. a. (3rd per. f.) bitghill, 
ghallit ; (endure) v. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtimil ; [carry) 
V. a. b6hmil, hamelt, hmul ; n. dibb p. dibeb. 

beard, n. da"n p. du"un; lihiyi p. liha. 

beardless, a. ajrudi. 

bearer, n. hamil; ne"il. 

beast, (wild) n. wahsh p. wuhush; [beasts in gen.) behe'im. 


beat, V. a. bidrub, darabt, drub; {overcome) bighlub, 
ghalabt, ghlub p.p. maghlub; to be beaten, bindirib, 

beautifuly a. zarif p. zuraf; jemil c. ejmel; bedi'a. 

beauty, n. jemel. 

because, con. bi hais; hais ann (with pro. suff.); li kun. 

become, v. n. bsir, sirt, sir; to suit v. (3rd per.) biyilba'*, 
libi" (li). 

bed, n. [bedding) fershi p. fershet; bed-clothes, n. ghata; 
lahaf; bed-room, n. udat an-nom ; bed-stead, n. takht 
p. tukhut. 

bedouin, n. bedewi p. bedu. 

bee, n. nahli p. nahl; bee-hive, n. "afir an-nahl. 

beef, n. lahm ba"ar; boiled beef, lahm maslu"; roast 

beef, lahm mishwi. 
beer, n. bira. 
beeswax, n. sham 'a asfar. 
beetle, n. khinfsi p. khenefis. 
beetroot, n. shmendur (shwender). 
before, ad. pr. "abl; [of space) amem; "iddem ; before 

and after, "abl u b'ad ; con. "abl ma. 
beg, V. a. bitrajja, trajjait, trajja; to beg of, v. biltimis, 

iltemest, iltimis (min.). 
beggar, n. shahhad. 

begin, v. a. bbellish, bellesht, bellish; bibtfdi, btedeyt, btfdi. 
beginner, n. mibtfdi. 
beginning, n. bdeyi. 
behalf, on (of), pr. minshen. 

behave, v. n. bisluk, salakt, sluk ; bitsarraf, tsarraft, tsarraf. 
behaviour, n. tesarruf; sluk; siri; his behaviour, sirt-uh. 
behind, pr. khalf; wara; bi **afa. 
Belgium, Beljika; belgian, a. beljiki. 


belief, n. 'iti"ad. 

believe, v. a. bsaddi", sadda"t, saddi"; to believe in, v. 

bu'min, ament, emin (fi or bi). 
believer, n. mu'min. 
bell, n. jaras p. jras. 
bellows, n. menfakh. 
belly, n. batn. 
belong to (to) v. n. (3rd per.) bikhuss, ken bikhuss; it 

belongs to me, bikhuss-ni; teb'a-i. 
below, pr. taht. 
belt, n. zinnar p. znenir. 
bench, n. bank p. bnuki; ma" 'ad khasheb. 
bend, v. a. bilwi, laweyt, Iwi; v. n. to bend the head, 

bnikhkh, nakhkhait, nikhkh. 
benefit, n. menfa'a p. menafi'a. 
bent (crooked) a. *awaj f. 'owja p. 'uj. 
berth (on board ship) n. srir p. aserir (sraiyir). 
berry, n. kibsh p. kebush. 
beside, pr. hadd; "arib; jenb. 
besides, ad. ma'ada ; kamen ; fadlan 'an 
besiege, v. a. bhasir, hasert, hasir. 
best, a. sup. al-ahsan; ahsan min al-kill. 
bet [on), V. n. brahin, rahent, rahin ('ala) ; n. rahn p. 

Bethlehem, Beytlahm. 
betray, v. a. bkhun, khint, khun. 
betroth (to), v. a. bitlub, talabt, tlub (ila) ; bkhattib, 

khattabt, khattib (ila); betrothed, a. khatib. 
betrothal, n. khitbi. 
better, a. ad. ahsan; afdal. 
betting, n. mraheni. 
between, pr. beyn. 



beyond, pr. b'ad ; [of space) "at'i ; beyond fueasurej fow 

"al-hadd; fow "al-"iyes. 
Bible, n. (old Testament) at-towra; (ntw Testament) al-injil. 
big, a. kbir c. akbar p. kbar; 'azim. 
bile, n. safra. 
bill, n. "a'imit hiseb; bill of exchange, kimbieli p. kim- 

bielet; bill of lading, bolsit shahn p. bwalis. 
bind, V. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut pp. marbut; [to roll) 

V. a. bliff, leffeyt, liff, pp. melfuf ; (of books) v. a. bjellid, 

jelledt, jellid pp. mjellad. 
bird, n. tayr p. tuyur; bird-lime, dib". 
birth, n. uledi; the birth of the child, uledit al-walad; 

birth-day, 'eid mowlid; milad. 
bishop, n. mitran p. matarni. 
bishopric, n. abrashiyi. 
bit, n. (piece) nitfi ; sha"fi ; (of a bridle) fekk ; bit by bit, 

shwayi shwayi; (piecemeal) nitfi nitfi. 
bite, V. a. b'add, 'addait, 'add. 
bitter, a. murr. 

black, a. aswad (aswid) f. sowda p. sud. 
blacking, n. boya. 
blacksmith, n. hadded. 

blade, n. shafra p. shafrat; nasli p. naslat. 
bladder, n. meteni; mebweli; (iiiflated) n. marara. 
blame, v. a. blum, limt, lum (tised to inferiors); v. a. ba'atib, 

'atabt, *atib (used to equals and inferiors); n. lowm; 'it^b. 
blameless, ad. bila lowm. 
blank, a. abyad; in blank, *ala baiyad. 
blanket, n. hram p. hramet. 
blaze, n. sh*ali ; lahib. 
bleach, v. a. bu"sur, "asart, u"sur pp. ma"sur; bbaiyid, 

baiyadt, baiyid pp. mbaiyad. 



bleedy v. n. (3rd per.) bisil, sel min-nuh damm ; v. a. bufsud, 

fasadt, fsud. 
bless, V. a. bberik, berakt, berik. 
blessing, n. bereki p. bereket. 
blind, a. *ama; v. a. be'ami, 'ameyt, 'ami; to go blifid, 

V. n. b'ama, 'amit. 
blindness, n. 'ama. 
blister, n. hara"a. 
block, n. sidd p. sdud ; block of wood, "it'at khasheb ; 

V. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd pp. mesdud. 
blockade, n. hisar bahri. 
blockhead, n. abhel; mebhul ; belid. 
blood, n. damm; full-blooded, a. dammawi. 
bloody, a. mlattakh bi damm ; bloodshed, n. sef k ad-dimma. 
bloom, n. tarawi. 

blossom, n. zahra p. zahr (zuhur). 
blot, n. latkha. 

blotting-paper, n. wara*'neshshesh (neshshaf). 
bloiv, n. darbi; latmi; v. n. binfukh, nefakht, nfukh 

pp. menfukh. 
blue, a. azra" f. zer"a p. zir"; dark blue, azra" ghami'*; 

light blue, azra" fetih. 
blunder, n. ghalta p. ghaltat c. p. ghalat. 
blunt, a. kell; mau (mush) madi. 
blush, V. n. bikhjel, khijilt, khijel. 
boar, n. khanzir berri p. khnezir berriyi. 
board, n. lowh p. Iweh; sideboard, khizenit sufra. 
boast, n. fashr; fakhr; v. n. biftikhir, iftakhert, iftikhir; 

bshuf, shuft hal-i, shuf hal-ak. 
boaster, n. feshshar. 

boat, n. feluka p. fleyik; "arib p. "awerib. 
boatman, n. bahri. 


bodkiHf n. mdekk, p. mdekket. 

bodyy n. jism p. ajsem; (corpse) jifi p. ji'ef. 

boily V. a. and n. {of liquids) bighli, ghaleyt, ghli pp. 
mighli; (of solids) v. a. bislu", sala"t, slu" pp. maslu"; 
V. n. (3rd per.) biyinsili", insala". 

boiler, n. dist p. dsut. 

boiling, a. ghali. '7qUl__ 

boldy a. jesur. 

bolster, n. mkhaddi ; wusedi. 

bolt, n. sa"ata (sa"uta) p. sa"utat; da"r p. d"ura. 

bomb, n. killi p. klel. 

bond, n. sened p. senedet; sakk p. skuk. 

bone, n. 'admi p. 'adam ('adm). 

bonfire, n. "abili ("abuli) p. "abebil; tenwir. 

bonnet, n. birneyta p. buranit. 

book, n. kiteb p. kutub ; book-binder, mjellid; book-case, 
kutubiyi; khizenit kutub; book-keeper, mhassibji; book- 
keeping, mesk ad-defetir ; book-seller, bey'i kutub ; 
bookshelf, reflf p. rfuf. 

boot, n. sirmeyi p. sarami ; bootlace, shrita p. shrayit ; 
bootmaker, kinderji; topboot, jezmi p. jezmet. 

booty, n. ghanimi. 

border, n. haffi p. haflfet; hadd p. hudud; hashiyi. 

bore, V. a. bibkhush, bakhasht, bkhush pp. mebkhush ; 
(of metals) bi"dah, "adaht, "ideh; (to weary) bit'ub, 
ta*ebt, tu*ub pp. met'ub ; it bores me, biyit'ib-ni, ta'ab-ni. 

born, to be, v. n. bikhla", khili"t; bulad, walidt. 

borrow, v. a. bista'ir, sta*art, sta'ir. 

bosom, n. hudn (hidn) p. ahdan. 

Bosphorus, Boghaz. 

both, a. kill wehid (wahid); itneyn f. tinteyn. 

bother, n. t*ab; si"li. 


bottle, n. "annini p. "ineni. 

bottoniy n. asfal; "e'a ("a'a). 

bough, n. ghusn p. aghsan; fer'a (fir'i) p. fru'a. 

boimdary, n. hadd p. hudud; takhm p. tkhum. 

bouquet, n. ba"et (be"at) zuhur. 

bow, n. "ows p. a"was; (of a necktie), 'u"di ('i"di). 

bow (reverence), n. haniiyt ras; v. n. binhini, inhanait, 

bowels, n. am'a; ferigh ; sijuk. 

bowl, n. tasi p. taset ; kesi p. keset ; pipe boivl, ghaliyun. 
box, n. sandu" p. snedi" ; (small) 'elbi p. 'eleb; (box on 

the ear) kefif. 
boy, n. sabi p. subiyan; walad p. uled (owlad). 
boyhood, n. siba. 

bracelet, n. iswar p. asewir; sleti p. sletat. 
braces, n. "ishat. 

brackets, n. p. hileleyn; iri brackets, beyn hileleyn. 
brackish, a. melih; brackish water, mai melha. 
bradawl, n. berrimi. 
braid, n. jedel; habk. 

brain, n. dmagh; nkh'a; sheeps* braiyis, nkh'a kharuf. 
bramble, n. 'owsaj ; shok. 
bran, n. nkhali. 

branch, n. ghusn p. aghsan ; fer'a (fir'i) p. fru'a. 
brand, n. wasm ; nishen ; damgha ; v. a bhutt, hattait, 

hutt wasm. 
brass, n. nahas asfar. 
brawl, n. khna'*a; toshi. 
brave, a. shuje'a (seje'a). 
bravery, n. sheje'aa (seje'aa). 
bray, v. n. (3^^ per.) bishenhi", shenha". 
breads n. khibz ; loaf of bread, rghif khibz. 


breadth y n. 'ard. 

break y v. a. biksur, kesert, ksur pp. maksur; to break 

in pieceSy v. a. bkessir, kessert, kessir; to be broken^ 

(3rd per.) biyinkisir, inkeser ; to break a promise^ bkhill, 

khalleyt, khill bil-w'ad. 
breakfast^ n. terwi"a; ftur; v. n. biftar, fatart, ftar. 
breasty n. sidr; breastplate (of a horse) sidriyi. 
breathy n. nefes. 

breathe, v. n. bitneffes. tnefifest, tneffes. 
breech-loader, n. barudi khal'a. 
breedy n. jins p. ajnes; asl. 
breezcy n. nesim. 
bribe, n. bartil p. baratil ; reshwi ; v. a. bbertil, bertelt, 

bertil; v. bshuf, shuft, shuf khatir-uh. 
bricky n. "armidi p. "armid. 
bride, n. 'arus p. 'araiyis. 
bridegroom, n. 'aris p. 'irs^n. 
bridesmaid, n. shbini p. shbinet. 
bridge, n. jisr p. jesura. 
bridle, n. Ijem p. Ijemet c. p. lijim; v. a. biljum, lajamt, 

Ijum (Ijom). 
brief, a. mukhtaser; briefly, bil-ikhtisar. 
brigade, n. liwa p. elvviyi. 
brigandy n. "att'a at-tari" p. "atta'in. 
bright (brilliant)y a. lem'i. 
brifriy n. haffi; brimful, melen li shiffi. 
bring, v. a. bjib, jibt, jib. 
brink, n. haffi. 
brittle, a. *'ebil al-kesr. 
broad, a. 'arid; wes'i. 

broker, n. simsar p. smasra; dellal (dell^l). 
brood, n. sus p. sisan. 


brook, n. se"i. (sa"i) p. swe"i (sawa"i). 

broom, n. mikinsi p. mkenis; m"ashshi; belleni. 

broth, n. mar"a. 

brother, n. khey (khay); akh p. ikhwi ; (of the same 

father and mother) sha"i"; brother-in-law, suhr. 
brown, a. asmar p. sumr. 

bruize, v. a. brudd, raddait, rudd p.p. mardud ; n. radda. 
brush, n. firsheyi p. firsheyet; tooth-brush, firsheyit snen; 

V. a. bfershi, fershait (fersheyt), fershi. 
brushwood, n. bellen. 
bucket, n. dalu p. fdilwi ; satl p. stuli. 
buckle, n. bzim p. bzimet; v. a. bbekkil, bekkelt, bekkil 

p.p. mbekkel. 
bud^ n. zirr p. zrar. 
buffalo, n. jemus p. jwemis. 
bug, n. ba"a p. ba". 
bugle, n. nefir. 
biiild, V. a. b'ammir, 'ammert, 'ammir, p.p. m'ammer; 

bibni, benait (beneyt), bni p.p. mibni. 
btiilder, n. m'emeri p. m'ameriyi; benna p. benneyin. 
building, n. 'amara p. 'amarat ; bina p. binaiyet. 
bulb, n. basli p. basl. 

Bulgaria, Bilgharia; bulgarian, a. bilghari. 
bull, n. towr (tor) p. tiran (tuwar). l^ « v ' ' 
bullet, n. resasa p. resas. 
bulrush, n. ghazzara p. ghazzar. 
bump, n. waram; (knock) sadmi; v. a. bisdum sadamt, 

bunch, n. (of grapes) 'an"ud p. 'ane"id ; (flowers) dummi. 
bundle, n. hizmi p. hizem ; rizmi p. rizmet c.p. rizm. 
bung, n. fellini p. fellin. 
buoy, n. shmandura p. shmandurat; 'awwemi. 


burden, n. himl p. hmel (hmuli). 

burial, n. defn. 

burn, V. a. bihru", hara"t, huru" p.p. mahru"; v. n. 

(3rd per.) biyehru", hara"; biyihtiri", ihtara"; the fire 

burnSf an-nar bitish'ul, she'elit. 
burst, V. n. (3rd per.) biyinfijr (biyinfizr), infajr (infazr); 

biyinfera, infel'a. 
bury [of persons), v. a. bidfun, defent, dfun, p.p. med- 

fun ; [of animals) btumm, tammait, tumm p.p. matmum. 
bush, n. 'illey"a p. 'illey". 

business, n. shighl (shughl) p. ashghel (ashghal). 
busy, a. meshghul. 
but, con. l^kin; wa anima. 
butcher, n. lahham; "assab. 
butt, V. a. and n. (3rd per.) biyintah, natah. 
butt-end, n. "anda" ("inda"). 
SC butter, n. zibdi; clarified butter, semm. ^^-^/^^^ QM/r^ 
butterfly, n. frashi p. frashet. 
button, n. zirr p. zrar; v. a. bbekkil, bekkelt, bekkil p.p. 

button-hole, n. bikli p. bikel; 'irwi p. irwet. 
buttress, n. d'ami p. da'aiyim. 
buy, V. a. bishtri, shtrait (shtreyt), shtri p.p. mushtera; 

buying, n. shraiyit. 
buyer, n. mushteri; sheri. 
buzz, V. n. (3rd per.) biwazwiz, wazwaz. 
buzzing, n. wazwazi. 
by,,^x. 'ind; jenb; hadd ; [instrumental) bi ; bi wastat. 



cabbage, n. melfufi p. melfuf; yakhanai p. yakhana. 

cabin, n. (ship's) kamara; uda zghiri. 

cabinet, n. khizeni p. khzeyin ; cabinet council, wazara. 

cage, n. "afas p. "afas. 

Cairo, Kahira. 

cake, n. ka'aki p. ka'ak; "urs p. "uras. 

calamity, n. msibi p. msaiyib; belwi p. belvvet. 

calculate, v. a. bihsub, hasabt, hsub p.p. mahsub. 

calculation, n. hiseb p. hisebet. 

calendar, n. riznemi d. riznemet. 

calf, n. 'ijl p. 'ujul; (of the leg) batat al-ijr. 

caligrapJiy, n. khatt. 

call, V. bindah, nadaht, ndah (li) v. b'aiyit, 'aiyett, *aiyit 

(ila or li); (to name) v. a. bsemmi, semmait, semmi 

p.p. msemma; (to call out) v. n. bsarrikh, sarrakht, 

sarrikh; (to visit) v. a. bzur, zirt, zur; (a visit) n. zi- 

yara p. ziyarat. 
calm, n. hudu; (of the sea) ghalini; a. rekiz; hedi; v. a. 

bheddi, heddait (heddeyt), heddi; bsekkin, sekkent, 

calumniate, v. bushi, washait, ushi (ala). 
calumniator, n. nemmem. 
calumjiy, n. nemimi. 
camel, n. jemel p. jmel; b'aiyir p. 3h€\v; she-camel, ne"a; 

camel-driver, jemmel. 
camp, n. khiyem; (milit\) m'asker. 
camphor, n. kafur. 

can, n. tenaki p. tenket; v. n. (vide: to be able). 
canal, n. "anayi p. i"niyi. 


cancel, v. a. bbuttil, battalt, battil; cancelled, a. batil. 

cancer, n. saratan p. sratin. 

candid, a. selim al-"elb ; selim an niyi ; mukhlis. 

candle, n. shama'a p. shama'at. 

candlestick, n. sham'aden. 

cane, n. khaizeran ; sugar-cane, "asab sikker; "asabmass; 

{walking stick) 'asa p. 'usi. 
cafinibal, n. ekil lahm al-beshr. 
cannon, n. medf'a p. mdef'i. 
carmot, v. n. ma bi"dir, ma "edirt; / cannot do it, ma 

bi"dir 'amil-uh ; it cannot be, ma bisir. 
cap, n. ta"iyi p. tawa"i; 'ar"iyi; p. 'ara"i ; "ib'i p. "ibe'a. 
capable, a. mu"tidir; "adir ("edir). 
capacious, a. wes'i; fasih. 

cape, n. [headland] ras; [cloak) burnus p. baranis. 
caper, (plant) n. "abbar. 
capital, n. [of a coufttry) 'aasmi p. 'awasim; "asabi p. 

**asabet; [of money) rismel (rismal). 
capitulate, v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim taht shart. 
capsicum, n. flaifli. 
captive, n. esir p. lisera. 
captivity, n. isr; sebi. 
capture, v. a. bi'sur, asert, isur p.p. ma'sur; bisbi, sebeyt, 

isbi p.p. misbi. 
caravan, n. *'afili p. "awafil. 
carcass, n. jitti p. jittet; [human) jifi p. ji'ef. 
card, n. wara"a p. wara". 
cardboard, n. kartun. 
cards (playing), n. p. wara" I'eb (I'ub) ; pack of cards, 

care [anxiety), n. hemm; [attention) n. ^*atina; take care! 

dir b^l-ak. 


careful, to be [about) v. n. be'atini, 'etenet, e'atini(fi). 

careless, a. mush mbeli. 

caress, n. mlatafi; v. a. bdellil, dillelt, dellil; bghannij, 

ghannejt, ghannij. 
caretaker, n. natur al-beyt. 
cargo, n. shahn; was". 
carnation, n. "arunfli p. "arunful. 
carpenter, n. nejjar. 
carpet, n. [large) bsat p. bust; [small) sejjedi p. sejjedet 

c. p. sijjad. 
carriage, n. 'arabiyi p. 'arabiyet; karrusa p. karruset; 

(freight) n. nowulun; (porterage) n. 'ateli. 
carrion, n. jifi. 
carrot, n. jezera p. jezr. 

carry, v. a. behmil, hamelt, hmul p.p. mahmul. 
cart, n. [large) karro p. karrat; [smalt] tumberu p. tma- 

bir (tunber p. tnabir). 
cartridge, n. f6sheki p. feshek; khartushi p. khartush. 
Qarve [of stone) v. a. bin"ush, na"asht, n"ush p.p. men- 
"ush ; [of wood) V. a. bihfur, hafert, hfur p.p. mahfiir. 
carving, n. na"sh; hafr. 
cascade, n. shellel p. shellelet. 

case, n. sandu" p. snedi"; [small) *elbi p. 'eleb; [legal) 
d'awa p. da'awi; statement of case, *ard al-mes'eli; 
in no case, abaden. 
cash, n. na"diyi; in cash, ad. na"den; v. a. bi"bad, 
"abadt, i"bad p.p. ma"bud; cash-book, n. defter p. 
defetir; cash-box, n. sandu"hadid. 
cashier, n. sandu"ji; amin as-sandu". 
cask, n. barmil p. baramil. 
castle, n. "al'a p. "il'a 
castor oil, n. zeyt kharw'a. 


castrate^ v. n. bukhsi, khsait, khsi pp. mikhsi. 

casual y a. 'aradi. 

cat, n. bseyn p. bseynet; "att p. "atat. 

catalogue, n. jedwel p. jdewil. 

catastrophe, n. nekbi p. nekbet. 

catch, V. a. brkmish, kmesht, kmush; bimsik, mesakt, 

msuk p.p. memsuk; bukhtuf, khataft, khtuf. 
cauldron, n. [large) khar'in p. khle"in; dist p. dsut. 
cauliflower, n. "arnabita p. "arnbit; zahra p. zahret. 
cause, n. sebeb p. asbeb ; 'illi p. 'illel ; v. a. bsebbib, 

sebbebt, sebbib p.p. msebbeb ('an). 
caustic, n. mikwi. 

cauterise, v. a. bikwi, kweyt, kwi p.p. mikwi. 
caution, n. hazr; ihtiras. 
cautious, a. haris. 
cavalry, n. p. khaiyeli; fursan. 
cave, n. maghara p. mghaiyir. 

cease, v. n. (3rd per.) biyikhlas, khalas; biyintfhi, inteha. 
cedar, n. erzi p. erz. 
ceiling, n. [of masonry) sa"f p. s"uf; [boarded) tawan 

p. tawanet. 
celebrate, v. a. bihtifil, ihtafelt, ihtifil. 
celebrated, a. mesh-hur. 
celerity, n. sur*a; 'ajeli. 
celery, n. krefs. 
cellar, n. "abu p. {"biyi. 
cement, n. tin; mlat; simento; v. a. btaiyin, taiyent, 

taiyin p.p. mtaiyen ; bmallit, mallatt, mallit p.p. 

cemetery, n. ma"bara p. m"^bir; turbi p. turab. 
censure, n. lowm; v. a. blum, limt, lum p.p. melum. 
centipede, n. imm arb*a u arb6*in. 


centre, n. wast; merkez. 

century, n. jil p. ajiyel; "arn p. "urun. 

ceremony, n. [function) ihtifel ; {behaviour) teklif. 

certain, a. akid ; [some] ba'ad-um [with pro: suff.). 

certainly, ad. m'alum; ha" "an; ma"fura. 

certificate, n. shehedi. 

certify, v. bish-had, shahidt (fi). 

chaff, n. (chopped straw) tibn. 

chain, n. jenzir p. jnezir; silsli p. slesil; v. a. bjenzir^ 

jenzert, jenzir p.p. mjenzer; b"eyyid, "eyyedt, "eyyid 

p.p. m"eyyed. 
chair, n. kirsi p. kerasi; rocking chair, kirsi hezzez. 
chalk, n. tbashir. 
chameleoji, n. herbeyi. 
chance, n. sudfi, p. sidaf; fursa p. furas. 
chandelier, n. traiya p. traiyet. 
change, taghiyir ; [of money) n. fart ; v. a. bghaiyir, ghai- 

yert, ghaiyir; v. n. bitghaiyir, tghaiyert, tghaiyir p.p. 

mutghaiyer; [to change mo7iey) v. a. bisruf, saraft, 

channel, n. mejra p. mejeri. 
chapel, n. kenisi zghiri; kabella. 
chapter, n. fasl p. fusul; {iri the Bible) is-hah p. is- 

character, n. tab'a p. atb'a; of good character, rnhdiZZdih-, 

his character is bad, tab'a-uh redi; a bad character, 

sha"i p. ish"iya. 
charcoal, n. fahm. 

charge [accusatio7i), n. tehmi; [custody) n. istilam. 
charity, n. rahmi; haseni; [alms) sada"a. 
charm [amulet), n. hirz p. huruz. 
chart, n. kharta. 


chasm, n. huwi p. huwet; shi" " p. shu"u". 

chastise, v. a. b'eddib, 'eddebt, 'eddib p.p. m'eddeb ; b"asis, 

"asast, "asis p.p. m"asas. 
chastisement, n. "isas. 
cheap, a. rkhis c. arkhas p. rkhas. 

cheat, V. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh p.p. maghshush. 
check, n. men*i; v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. mem- 

n'u; bsudd, saddait, sudd p.p. masdud. 
check-mate, n. met (mat). 

cheek, n. khadd, khudud ; cheek bone, wejni p. wejnet. 
cheer, v. a. bfarrih, farraht, farrih ; bibsut, basatt, bsut. 
cheerful, a. farhan. 
cheese, n. jibn; a cheese, "elib jibn. 
chemist, n. farmashyeni; saideli; ^^^;«^V/'.y j-A^/, farmashia; 

cherry, n. kerezi p. kerez ; cherry tree, kerezi. 
chess, n. sataranj (shatranj) ; to play chess, bil'ab, I'ibt, 

Tab sataranj; chess-man, hajr p. hijar; king, shah; 

nefs; queen, firz; castle, rikh; bishop, fil; knight, faras ; 

pawn, bayda** p. biyedi". 
chess-board, n. ri"'at as-sataranj. 
chest, n. sidr p. sduri; {box) sandu" p. snedi". 
chestnut, n. kestaneyi p.kestana; chestnut tree kestaneyi. 
chew, V. a. bimdagh, madaght, mdagh p.p. mamdugh. 
chicken, n. djeji p. djejet c. p. djej ; firkha p. firakh; 

chicken-pox, jidrit al-mai. 
chief t n. raiyis p. ruasa. 
chiefly, ad. khususan; bil-akhas. 
child, n. walad p. uled (owlad). 
childhood, n. waldeni. 
chill, n. berd. 
chilly, a. berid f. berdi ; {of persons) msa" 'a ; berdcn. 


chimney J n. dekhun p. dwekhin ; medkheni ; [of a lamp) 

"izezi p. "izezet. 
chitij n. da"n p. du"un. 

China, as-sin ; Chinese, a. sini; [porcelain) n. khazaf ; sini. 
chintz, n. shit; yemeni. 
chisel, n. zmil p. azamil. 
choice, n. ikhtiyar. 
choke, V. a. [of creatures) bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. 

makhnu"; (of things) v. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p. 

cholera, n. hawa asfar. 
choose, V. a. bna" "i, na" "ait, na""i p.p. mna""a; bukhtar, 

ikhtart, ikhtar p.p. mukhtar. 
chopper, n. satur p. swatir. 
chord, n. watar p. owtar. 
Christ, Yesu'a; al-mesih; 'Isa. 

Christian, n. nusrani p. nasara; mesihi p. mesihiyin, 
church, n. kenisi p. kn^yis. 
cigarette, n. sikara p. swekir; a^^r^//^ /f^/^^r, biz sikara; 

cigarette case, 'elbit sikara. 
cinders, n. rimed. 
cinnamon, n. "irfi. 
cipher, n. shifra; ra"m p. ar"am. 
circle, n. de'iri p. dwe'ir. 
circulate, v. n. (3rd per.) bidur, dar. 
circufnstance, n. zarf p. zuruf. 
cistern, n. sahrij p. saharij ; [well) bir p. biyara. 
citizen, n. ibn beled p. uled beled. 
citron, n. kubbedi p. kubbed. 
city, n. medini p. mudn. 
civil, a. meleki; civil service khidmi milkiyi; [polite) a. 

mhazzab; mrubba. 


civility J n. tehzib; lutf. 

claim, n. talab p. talbet c. p. matalib; [legal claim) n. 

d'awa p. da'awi ; v. a. bitlub, talabt, tlub p.p. matlub ; 

[to pretend) v. bidde'i, idda'ait, idde'i (fi)j to claim 

[legally) v. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul d'awa. 
claimant, n. talib p. tullab; mudde'i. 
clamour, n. dajji (doji); saiha. 
clap [applaud), v. bza" "if, za" "aft, za""if (li), 
class, n. sinf p. asnaf. 
claw, n. difr (zifr) p. adfar (azfar), dafir. 
clay, n. tin; [earth) tirab. ^ C^A^i^) 
clean, a. ndif c. andaf p. ndaf; v. a. bnaddif, naddaft, 

naddif p.p. miiaddaf. 
cleanliness, n. nadafi. 
clear, a. wadih; zahir; {transparent) a. sheffa-f ; [of ligtads) 

safi ; raiyi"; v. a. browwi", rowwa"t, rowwi" p.p. 

mrowwa"; clear sighted, nazr-uh taiyib. 
clerk, n. ketib p. kitteb. 
clever, a. shatir, c. ashtar p. shuttar. 
climb, V. n. bit'amsha", t'amsha"t, t'amsha" ('ala) ; bit'ar- 

bash, t'arbesht, t'arbash ('ala). 
climate, n. menekh. 
clock, n. se'a di"a"a; clock-maker, se'ati ; clock-tower, 

birj as-s^'a; face of a clock, mina; hands of a clock, 

'a"rab p. 'a"arib. 
close, a. "arib p. "urab; (to fasten) v. a. bsekkir, sekkert, 

sekkir p.p. msakker; {to shut) v. a. bughlu", ghala"t, 

ghlu" p.p. maghlu". 
closet, n. khizeni p. khzeyin. 
cloth, n. jukh; saddle-cloth, libb^di; [for wiping) n. 

mc^msaha ; futa. 
clothe [to put clothes . on), v. a. blabbis, labbest, labbis ; 


(lo provide with clothes) v. a. biksi, ksait, ksi p.p. 
miksi; clothed, a. lebis. 
clothes, n. p. tyeb; n. keswi ; bedli. 
cloud, n. ghaimi p. ghiyum. 
clove [spice), n. kibsh "arunful. 
club, n. nebbut p. nebebit; {place of meeting) debesi 

p. debeset; {of cards) sbeti. 
coachman, n. 'arabaji. 
coal, n. fahm hajr. 
coarse, a. khishin. 
coat, n. sitra p. sitrat (sitri p. sitari); saku p. saket; 

overcoat, kebbut p. kbebit; jibbi p. jibeb. 
cobbler, n. sekkef. 
cobweb, n. 'ankebut; sidi 'ankebut. 
cock, n. dik p. diyuk; (of a gun) dik. 
cockroach, n. sarsur p. srasir. 

coffee, n. "ahwi; (in the berry) benn {h'lnn); ground coffee, 
benn mat-hun; coffee boiler, ghiWey'i; duli (doli); coffee- 
mill, mat-hanit benn; coffee roaster, ma-hmsisa.; to roast 
coffee, V. a. bhammis, hammast, hammis p.p. mhammas. 
coffin, n. tebut p. twebit. 
coin, n. 'umli ; v. a. bsikk, sekkeyt, sikk *umli ; bdu" ", 

da" "ait, du""'umli. 
cold, n. berd ; a. berid f. berdi ; (of persons) a. berden ; 
(in the head) n. resh ; {in the chest) nizl ; to catch cold, 
V. n. bibrud, baradt, brud ; / have a cold ifi the head, 
ana mreshshah. 
colic, n. maghs. 

collar, n. "abbi p. "abbet; (of harness) kiddeni. 
colleague, n. refi p. arfa". 

collect, V. a. bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a p.p. mejmu'a. 
college, n. medresi p. mederis. 


colonel, n. mir alay. 

colour y n. lown p. elwen. 

colt, n. mnhr p. mhur (mahari). 

column, n. 'amud p. 'awemid. 

comb, n. musht p. mshat; v. a. bmashshit, mashshatt, 

mashshit p.p. mmashshat. 
come, V. n. biji, jit, t'a; coi?te up, bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala); 

come down, binzel, nzilt, inzel; cojne back, birj'a, rj'at 

(rj'et), rj'a (rje'a). 
comet, n. abu denab. 
comfort, n. {ease) raha. 
co?nf or table, a. mlib ; bi raha ; mirteh. 
comical, a. mudhik. 

coming, pres. part, jei; coming and going, raih u jei. 
command, n. amr p. awemir; v. a. bi'mur, amert, emir 

co7nmander, n. amir; "eyid; kumandan. 
commend, v. a. bimdah, madaht, mdah p.p. memduh. 
commendation, n. medh (medih). 
commerce, n. tijara; metjr. 
commission, n. 'umuli {allowance to an agent), 
common, a. derij c. adraj ; {universal) 'umumi, 'am ; 

(plentiful) wajd (mowjud) bi kitra; ghazir; commonly, 

ad. *umumen. 
communicate, v. a. bbelligh, bellaght, belligh p.p. mbellagh. 
communication, n. tebligh p. teblighat. 
companion, n. refi*' p. arfa"; zmil p. zumela. 
company, n. shirki p. sheraket; {milit:) buluk p. buluk^t. 
comparatively, ad. bin-nisbi. 

compare {with), v. a. bi"ebil, "abelt, "^bil (m'a). 
comparison, n. m"ebeli; in comparison with, bil-m*'^beli ; 

bin-nisbi ila. 



compass, n. bikar. 

compassion, n. shefa"a; ra'fi. 

compel (to), V. a. bijbur, jebert, jbur p.p. mejbur ('ala). 

compensate, v. a. b'owwid, 'owwadt, 'owwid p.p. m'ow- 

wad ('ala of the person) ; to be compensated, bit'owwad, 

compensation, n. t'awid. 
competence, n. salahiyi. 
competent, a. "adir ("edir). 

complain (of), v. bitshekka, tshekkait, tshekka (min). 
complaiyit, n. teshekki (shekwa) p. teshekkiyet. 
complete, a. kemil ; v. a. bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil p.p. 

cojnpletely, ad. bil-killiyi; tamemen. 
complexion, n. lown al-wijh. 
complicate, v. a. blebbik, lebbekt, lebbik p.p. mlebbek; 

b'arbis, 'arbest, 'arbis p.p. m'arbas. 
complication, n. irtibek. 

compliment, n. teklif p. teklifet; v. a. bhenni, hennait, henni. 
composed (of), a. murekkeb (min). 

comprehend, v. a. bifham, fahimt, fham p.p. mafhum. 
compromise, n. ittife" (ittifa") ; msewa ; v. a. bsewi, sa- 

weyt, sewi p.p. msewa. 
compulsion, n. ijbar. 
conceal, v. a. bkhabbi, khabbait, khabbi p.p. mkhabba; 

bikhfi, khafait, khfi p.p. mikhfi. 
concede (give), v. a. bimnah, manaht, mnah; (allow) v. 

bismah, semaht, smah (li). 
concern, v. a. (3rd per.) bihimm, hamm; it does 7iot coft- 

cern me, ma bikhuss-ni; ma bihimm-ni; ma biy'ani-ni; 

it did not concern 7ne, ma ken bikhuss-ni. 
concerning, pr. bkhusus; 'ala; min khusus. 


concessioriy n. imtiyez p. imtiyezet. 

conciliate, v. a. bselim, selemt, selim. 

conciliation, n. msalaha ; silha. 

coficise, a. mukhtaser. 

conclude, v. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; binhi, nahait, 

conclusioti, n. khatmi; netiji p. nete'ij. 
condemn, v. bihkum, hakamt, hkum p.p. mahkum ('ala 

of the person, ila of the thing), 
condition, n. (state) hali; [stipulation) shart p. shurut. 
conditionally, ad. 'ala shart. 
condole (with), v. a. b'azzi, 'azzait, 'azzi ; bselli, selleyt, 

condolence, n. t'aziyi. 
conduct, n. sluk; siri; her conduct, sirt-ha; to lead (to), 

V. a. bekhud, akhadt, khud (li). 
cofifectioner, n. hilwenji p. hilwenjiyi. 
confectionery, n. halawiyet. 

confederacy, n. jumhuriyi ; muhalifi p. muhalifet. 
confer (with), v. n. bitbahat, tbahatt, tbahat (m'a); 

bitzekir, tzekirt, tzekir (m'a) ; (to give) b'ati, 'atait, 'ati. 
confess, v. be'itirif, 'itaraft, e'itirif (bi); b"urr, "arrait, 

"urr (bi). 
confession, n. i"rar; 'itiraf. 

confide (to), v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim p.p. msellem (li). 
confidence, n. ti"a; emniyi. 
confidently , ad. bil-emniyi. 

confine, v. a. bihbus, habast, hbus (hbis) p.p. mahbus. 
confirm, v. a. bsebbit, sebbett, sebbit p.p. msebbet. 
confiscate, v. a. bi^juz, hajazt, hjuz p.p. mahjuz. 
confuse, v. a. bkharbit, kharbatt, kharbit ; (morally) v. a. 

b*arbis, 'arbest, 'arbis. 


confusion, n. kharbata; [moral) teshwish. 

congratulate, v. bhenni, hennait, henni; bberik, berakt, 

berik (li). 
congratulation, n. tebrik; tehniyi. 
conjecture, n. takhmin; v. n. bkhammin, khamment, 

conjurer, n. mz'abir. 

connect [with), v. a. busul, wasalt, usul (usfl) p.p. mowsul (bi). 
connection, n. ittisal; 'ala**a; [relation) "arabi p. "araiyib. 
conjioisseur , n. khabir. 

conquer, v. a. biftah, fataht, ftah p.p. maftuh. 
conscience, n. damir. 
conscious, a. we'i (wa'i). 
coftscription, n. "ur'a. 
conscript, n. 'asker "ur'a. 
consecutively, ad. bit-teb'aiyi. 

consent, n. rida; v. [to) birda, irdit, irda (fi or li). 
consequence, n. netiji p. nete'ij. 
consider, v. biftikir, iftakert, iftikir (fi or li). 
consider atio7i, n. [thought) ta'ammul; [respect) 'itibar. 
consign {to), v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim p.p. msellem (li). 
consigrwient [of goods), n. irsaliyi. 
cojisisting (of), a. murekkeb (min) ; m'ellef (min.) 
consolation, n. t'aziyi. 

console, v. a. b'azzi, 'azzait, 'azzi; bselli, selleyt, selli. 
conspicuous, a. zahir; wadih. 
conspiracy, n. mu'amera; hareki; kemin. 
constancy, n. sebet. 
co7istant, a. sebit; [continual) de'im. 
Constantinople, Istambul; al-isteni. 
constantly, ad. de*imen; 'ala dewam. 
consternation, n. khowf; r'abi. 


constipation y n. "abd ; kitem. 

construct^ v. a. b'ammir, 'ammert, *ammir p.p. m'ammer. 

consul^ n. "onsul p. "anasil; Consul General, "onsul 

jeneral; Vice-Consul, "onsul zghir (wekil "onsul); cori- 

sulate, l^unslato ("unslato). 
consult, V. a. bshewir, shewert, shewir. 
consumption, n. (disease) sil; (food) ma"tu'iyi. 
contact, n. ittisal. 
contagion, n. 'adwi. 
contagious, a. m'edi. 
contain, v. a. (3rd per.) bise'a, se*a. 
cojitaminate, v. a. be'adi, 'adait. 
contemptible, a. dun (deni) ; ha"ir. 
cotitent, n. rida; "ana'a. 
contented, a. radi; "en'i. 
contest, n. mnazera. 
continual, a. de'im; mustmurr. 
continually , ad. d^'imen. 
continue, v. a. bdewim, dewamt, dewim; v. n. (3i<i per.) 

bidum, dam (dem); bitul, tal; bitowwil, towwal. 
contraband, n. tehrib. 
contract, n. kontrato ; mu"aweli ; to contract with, b'amii 

kontrato m'a. 
contradict, v. a. b"^wim, "^wamt, "^wim; b'arid, 'aradt, 

contrary (to), ad. mkhalif ; pr. dudd ; on the contrary, 

bil-'aks; bil-khilaf. 
contrive, v. a. bdebbir, debbert, debbir. 
contrivance, n. tedbir p. tedebir; teswi; instinbat; (in- 
vention) ikhtira'a. 
convalescence, n. shifa; na"i. 
convenient, a. mw6fi"; mn^sib. 


convent, n. deyr p. diyura. 

convention, n. ma'ahedi. 

conversation, n. haki p. hakiyat. 

convert, n. muhtidi; v. a. [of religion) bihdi, hadait, 

hdi. p.p. mihdi; [of money) bhowwil, howwelt, howwil 

p.p. mhowwel. 
convey, v. a. bin"ul, na"alt, n"ul (n"il) p.p. men"ul. 
coyivict, n. miznib p. miznibin. 
convict [to), V. a. bkhatti, khattait, khatti ; v. bihkum, hakamt, 

hkum p.p. mahkum {^2X2^0/ the person, 1X2^ of the punishment), 
conviction, n. hukm; [belief) i"n'a. 

cook, n. ashji p. ashjiyi; v. a. bitbukh, tabakht, tbukh. 
cool, a. berid; v. a. bberrid, berradt, berrid. p.p. mber- 

rad; v. n. (3rd per.) biyibrud, bered. 
coop, n. "afas p. "afas. 
copper, n. nahas. 
coppersmith, n. nahhas. 
copying, n. nsakhi. 
copy, n. niskha p. n{sakh; v. a. binsakh, nasakht, nsakh 

p.p. mansukh. 
coquette, n. ghannuji; to coquet, v. a. and n. bgliannij, 

ghannejt, ghannij. 
coral, n. mirjen. 
cord, n. maras. 
core, n. "elb ("alb). 
cork, n. fellini p. fellinet c. p. fellin. 
corkscrew, n. berrimi p. berrimet. 
coryi, n. "amh ; [oji the foot) mismar. 
corner, n. zewi p. zawaiya; "urni p. "arani. 
corporal, n. on bashi; a. jesedi. 
corpse, n. jifi p. ji'ef; jitti p. jitet. 
corpulent, a. smin p. sman; nasih c. ansah. 


correcty a. sahih; mazbut; v. a. bsahhih, sahhaht, sahhih 

p.p. msahhah; bsallih, sallaht, sallih p.p. msallah. 
correspond withy [by letter) v. a. brasil, raselt, rasil ; [to 

agree with) v. n. (3rd per.) bitabi", taba" (li). 
correspondence y n. mrasili. 
correspojident, n. mketib; mrasil. 
corridor, n. ma'addiyi; memsha p. memeshi. 
corrupt, a. [of persons) murtikib. 
corruption, n. (bribery) fesed. 

cost, n. s'er; kilfi; "imi; v. n. (3rd per.) bikellif, kellef. 
cotton, n. "utun. 
couch, n. diwen; ma" 'ad. 
cough, n. s'ali; v. n. bis'ul, sa'alt, s'ul. 
council, n. mejlis; adniiyiistrative council, mejlis al-idara; 

coimcil of state, shovvra 'ad-dowli. 
counsel, n. nasiha; meshura; (to advise) v. a. binsah, 

nasaht, insah; v. bshur, shirt, shxxv {^2i\di); to take counsel 

with, V. a. bshewir, shewert, shewir. 
count, V. a. be'idd, 'addeyt, 'idd p.p. m'adud. 
counterfeit, v. a. bzowwir, zowwert, zowwir p.p. mzowwer. 
country, n. beled p. bilden ; (as opposed to town) berriyi ; 

countryman, ibn (p. uled) watn. 
couplet, n. beyt p. abiyet. 
courage, n. sheje'aa (seje'aa); jera*a. 
courageous, a. shuje*a (seje'a). 
courier, n. se'i (sa'i). 
course, n. (of a river) mejra; (way) tari"; race-coursey 

miden; {in driving) mishwar; of course, ad. min kill 

bidd; ma'Tura; m'alum. 
court, n. (of a sovereign) blat; (of a house) dar p. dur. 
court of justice, mahkemi p. mhakim; d^*iri p. dw^'ir ; 

civil court, d^'irit al-hu"u"; criminal court, d^'irit aj- 


jeza; commercial court, mejlis at-tijara; court of i^t in- 
stance, de'irit al-bedeyi; court of appeal, de'irit al- 
isti'naf; court of cassation, de'irit at-temiz. 

courteous, a. adib. 

courtesy, n. adab; lutf. 

courtier, n. nedim p. nudema. 

cousin, n. {by paternal uncle) ibn (f. bint) 'amm; {by 
pat, aunt), ibn (f. bint) 'ammi; {by maternal uncle) 
ibn (f. bint) khal; {by mat. aunt) ibn (f. bint) khali. 

co^'er, n. ghata p. ughtiyi; black silk cover worn by 
women, habara ; {coloured) melaiyi ; v. a. bghatti, 
ghattait, ghatti p.p. mghatta. 

covet, V. a. bishtihi, shtahait. 

coveteous, a. tamma'a. 

covey, n. reff p. rfuf. 

cow, n. ba"ara p. ba**ar. 

coward, n. jeb^n p. jubena. 

cowardice, n. jebeni. 

coxcomb, n. ghewi (ghawi). 

crab, n. salta'un (sulta'an) p. slata'in. 

crack, V. a. biksur, kesert, ksur p.p. maksur; v. a. 
(3rd per.) bishi"", sha"" p.p. mesh'*u"; bifsukh, fasakh; 
p.p. mafsukh; n. shi" " p. shu"u"; fiskh p. fsukh. 

cradle, n. sur p. aserir (sraiyir). 

craft, n. {trade) san'a p. sanai'ya ; hirfi ; (fraud) hili. 

crane, n. kirki p. kraki. 

crawl, V. n. bdebdib, debdebt, debdib. 

crazy, a. mef'u'a. 

cream, n. "ishta. 

crease, n. j'adi p. j'ad^t; v. a. bja'wid, ja'wadt, ja'wid. 

create {cause), v. a. bsebbib, sebbebt, sebbib p.p. msebbeb 
('an); God creates, Allah biyikhli", khala" p.p. makhlu". 


creation, n. {of the world) khal" al-'alam. 

creator (the), al-khali". 

creatures, n. p. makhlu"at. 

credentials, n. mektub towsiyi; shehedi p. shehedet. 

credit, n. {consideration) 'itibar ; {of money) emniyi ; kre- 

dito; debit and credit, luh wa 'aleyh; to give credit 

to {money), v. a. bdeyyin, deyyent, deyyin; [to believe) 

bsaddi", sadda"t, saddi". 
creditor, n. deyyen, p. deyyeni (medainiyi). 
crescent, n. hilel. 

cress, n. irshed; {watercress) "urra (hurra). 
crest, n. [of a bird) "unbra. 
Crete, krit; Cretans, ahli krit. 
crier, n. (public) dellel (dellal); mnedi. 
crime, n. zenb p. znub; jneyi p. jneyet. 
criminal, a. jeni; n. mijrim. 
crimson, a. "frmizi. 

cripple, n. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez; mukarsah p. mukarsihin. 
crocodile, n. timseh p. temesih. 
crocus, n. z'aferan. 

crook, n. {shepherds) *asa; [of a stick) mihjeni; 'akfi. 
crooked, a. 'awaj f. *owja p. 'uj. 
crop, n. mowsam p. mwasim. 
cross, n. salib p. sulben ; [put of temper) a. z'alen ; v. a. 

bi"t'a (bu"t*a) '*at*at, u"t'a; cross road, n. msallabi. 
crow, n. ghrab p. ghurb^n. 
crowd, n. jemhur kbir. 
crowded, a. mel^n; mezhum. 
crown, n. tej p. tij^n. 
crosier, n. *ukkaz. 

crucify, v. a. bislub, salabt, slub, p.p. maslub. 
cruel, a. "asi. 


cruelty, n. "asewi. 

criimbj n. kesra p. kesr. 

crupper, n. hiyasa. 

crusaders {the), n. p. as-salibiyi. 

crusades {the), n. p. hurub as-salibiyi. 

crush, V. a. bis-ha", saha"t, is-ha" p.p. mas-hu" ; bizhum, 

zahamt, zhum. 
cry, V. n. {to weep) bibki, bakit, bki ; v. a. {to call) bnedi, 

nadait, nedi; v. bindah, nadaht, ndah (li); n. sowt 

(sot) ; srakh. 
crystal, n. billowr (bellur). 
cucumber, n. khiyara p. khiyar. 
cue, n. {billiard) 'asa biliardo; {hint) ishara. 
cuff, n. {blow) latmi ; kefif; {shirt) kimm (kumm) p. kemem. 
cuirass, n. dir*a p. dru'a. 
culprit, n. mfznib; mi'jrim. 
cultivate, v. a. biflah, felaht, flah p.p. mafluh. 
cultivation, n. fleha (felaha). 

cunning, a. dehi ; muhtel ; a cunnifig rogue , n. hielji. 
cup, n. finjen p. fnejin. 
cupboard, n. khizeni p. khzeyin. 
cupola, n. "ubbi p. "ibeb. 
curdled, a. rab. 

curds {curdled milk), n. rowbi. 

cure, n. shi'fa; v. a. bishfi, shefeyt, shfi; cured, a. shifi. 
curl, n. j'adi p. j'adet; v. a. bja'wid, ja'wadt, ja'wid; 

bliff, leffeyt, lifif; curly, a. j'adi. 
currants, n. p. "ashlamish. 
currency, n. 'umli derji. 

current, (of a streafn) n. mejra; (of money) a. derji. 
curry (a horse), v. a. bhiss, hassait, hiss. 
curry-co7nb, n. mhassi. 


cursej n. I'ani p. I'anet; v. a. bil'an, la'ant, I'an p.p. 

curtain, n. birdeyi p. birdeyet; stara p. steyir; curtain- 
rod , n. 'asa. 

cushion, n. mkhaddi; (large) mesned p. mesenid. 

custom, n. 'adi p. a'adet c. p. awe'id. 

customer, n. zbun p. zbunet. 

custom-house, n. gumruk ; customs, n. p. rusumet. 

cut, V. a. b"uss, "assait, '*uss p.p. ma"sus ; bu"ta (bi"t*a) 
"at'at, u"t'a p.p. ma"tu'a. 

ctitting, n. teksir. 

cutlass, n. seyf p. siyuf; yatakan p. yatakanet. 

cymbal, n. sunj p. snuj. 

cypress, n. serwi p. serwet c. p. seru. 

Cyprus, "Ubrus; Cypriote, a. "ubrusi. 

dagger, n. khanjer p. khnejir. 

daily, a. yowmi (yomi); by the day (of work) yomiyi. 

daisy, n. a"hwan. 

dam, n. sidd p. sdud. 

damage, n. darar; v. a. bdurr, darrait, durr p.p. madrur; 

bsa**it, sa"att, sa"it p.p. msa*'at; damaged, a. sa"at 

(of goods). 
Damascus, sham (shem); Dimeshk ash-sham. 
damp, n. rtubi; a. rutib c. artab v. a. brattib, rattabt, 

dance, n. ra"s; v. n. bir"u.s, ra", ru"us. 
dancer, n. ra"as. 
danger, n. khatr. 


dangerous J a. mukhtir, khutir. 

Danube, Danub. 

Dardanelles, Dardanil. 

dare, v. n. bisterji, sterjeyt, sterji; btjaser, tjasert, tjaser; 

btjarr'a, tjarr'at, tjarr'a. 
darky a. 'atm f. 'atmi; m'atem f. m'atmi; to grow dark, 

V. n. (3rd per.) bit'atim, 'atamit ad-diniyi (the world), 
darkness, n. 'atmi; zulmi. 
darling, a. 'aziz; habib. 
darn, v. a. birti, ratait, irti p.p. merti. 
dash, V. a. bishlah, shalaht, shlah; birmi, rmait, rmi. 
date, n. (time) terikh; (fruit) heldih (fresh); taimr (dried), 
daughter, n. bint p. benat (benet) , daughter-in-law, kinni. 
dawdle, v. n. bmasiy'a, masiy'at, masiy'a ; blowt'i, lowt'at, 

day, n. yowm (yom) p. iyem (iyam) ; fete-day, 'eid p. 

*aiy^d; fast-day, yowm sowm (yom som); day and 

night, ad. nahar u leyl; day by day, ad. yowm b'ad 

yowm; by day, fin-nahar; all day, kill an-nahar; day 

of judgment, n. yowm al-"iyemi (for days of the week 

vide gramfuar). 
dead, a. me'it p. amwat (mota). 
deadly, a. muhlik; "attd. 
deaf, a. atrash f. tarsha. 
deafen, v. a. btarrash, tarrasht, tarrish. 
deal, (wood) n. snowbar; a great deal, ad. ktiri ktir; 

bi-ziedi; v. n. (to deal in) btejir, tejert, tejir (bi); 

V. a. (of cards) bdowwir, dowwert, dowwir; bfarri", 

farra"t, farri". 
dealer, n. tejir p. tujjar. 
dear, a. 'aziz; (expensive) ghali c. aghla. 
death, n. mowt (mot). 


debt, n. deyn p. diyun; iji debt {a debtor) a. and n. 

decanter y n. kraf. 

deceased, a. (of moslems) merhum ; (christians) mutwaffi. 
deceit, n. ghishsh. 
deceive, v. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh p.p. magh- 

deceiver, n. ghashshesh. 
December, n. kenun al-owwel. 
decency, n. leya"a. 
decent, a. leyi". 
decide, v. be'itimid, 'etemedt, e'itimid fala); bsammim, 

sammemt, sammim fikr ('ala). 
decision, n. hukm ; "arar. 
declaration, n. ta"rir; tasrih. 
declare, v. a. b'*arrir, "arrert, "arrir. 
declivity, n. nezli. 

decorate, v. a. bzeyyin, zeyyent, zeyyin p.p. mzeyyen. 
decoration, n. zini. 
decrease, v. a. b'ellil, "allelt, "ellil; bna"*'is, na""ast, 

na"'*is; V. n. (3rd per.) bi"ill, ''€i\y(in value) [i^^ per.) 

biyun"us, na"as; (of disease) bikhuff, khaff; n. na"s. 
decree, n. amr p. awemir. 
decrepit, a. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez. 
deduct, V. a. bitrah, taraht, trah p.p. matruh; bnezzil, 

nezzelt, nezzil. 
deduction, n. tenzil; is"at. 
deed, n. *amel p. a'mel; (title deed) hijji p. hujej; (deed 

of sale), hijjit bey'a. 
deep, a. *ami" (ghami**) c. aghma** p. ghma". 
deer, n. ghazd p. ghizlen. 
defamation, n. t*an ; iftfra. 


defamcy v. bit'an, ta'ant, ta'an (fi). 

defeat, v. a. bighlub, ghalabt, ghlub p.p. maghlub; to 

be defeated, binghilib, inghalibt; binhizim, inhazamt 

p.p. minhizim. 
defect, n. na"s; 'aib p. 'uyub. 
defective, a. na"is p. nu"a.s. 
defend, v. a. bihmi, hamait, hmi; (in a legal sense or 

to stand up for) v. bhami, hameyt, hami ('an). 
defendant, n. mudde' 'aleyh. 
defer, v. a. b'ekhkhir, ekhkhert, ekhkhir p.p. m'ekhkher; 

b'ejjil, ejjelt, ejjil p.p. m'ejjel. 
deference, n. ihtiram. 
defile, n. madi"; v. a. bnejjis, nejjest, nejjis; defiled, a. 

definite, a. belt; "ati*. 
degree, n. dereji. 
delay, n. 'a"a; v. a. b'owwa", 'owwa"t, 'owwe" p.p. 

m*owwa"; V. n. bit'owwa", t'owwa"t, t'owwa". 
deliberate, a. himil ; mihil ; {to reflect) v. biftiker, iftakert, 

iftikir (fi or li); deliberately, ad. 'ala mahl-ak (with 

pro. suff,). 
delicacy, n. nahafi; (weakness) du'af. 
delicate, a. nahif p. nuhafa; (weak) da'if p. da'af. 
delight, n. bast; farah; surur; v. a. (3rd per.) biyubsut, 

basat; biferrih, farrah; delighted, a. mesrur. 
delightful, a. mferrih (mufirih). 
delirious (to be), v. n. bihzi, hazait; bikhlut, khalatt 

deliver (to), v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim p.p. msellem 

(li); (liberate) v. a. bitlu", tala"t, tlu". 
deliverance, n. khalas. 
deluge, n. tufan (towafan). 


demand^ n. talab p. talbet c. p. matalib; bitlub, talabt, 

tlub p.p. matlub. 
demolish, v. a. bihdum, hadamt, hdum p.p. mahdum. 
demon, n. shaytan (sheytan) p. shaiyatin ; iblis. 
detiy n. maghara p. maghaiyir. 
denial, n. inkar. 

Denmark, Denimark; Dane, a. danemarki. 
dense, a. smik p. smak. 
dentist, n. hakim snen p. hukema snen. 
deny, v. a. binkur, nakert, nkur p.p. munker. 
depart, v. n. bsefir, sefert, sefir. 
departure, n. sefer. 
depend (on), v. n. (3rd per.) biyitwa" "af, twa" "af 

depopulate, v. a. bikhrub, kharabt ; depopulated, a. kharab. 
deposit, n. ameni; wadi'a; v. a. bud'a, wad'at, ud'a p.p. 

depth, n. ghum*'. 
descend, v. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel. 
descent, n. nezli. 
describe (to), v. a. bishrah, sharaht, shrah (li); described^ 

a. mazkur. 
description, n. wasf. 
desert, n. shol ; v. n. (milit:) bihrub, harabt, hrub; v. a. 

bdeshshir, dashshert, deshshir. 
deserter, n. herib. 
desertion, n. harab. 

deserve, v. a. bistaha"**, staha""eyt; bist^hil, stehelt. 
deserving, a. must^hil. 
design, n. ghaiyi; "asd p. ma"asid; (sketch) resm p. 

desire, n. rughbi; v. a. birghab, rghibt, rghab. 


desirable, a. marghub. 

desk, n. mektebi; beshtakta. 

destroy, v. a. bikhrub, kharabt, khrub; bihdum, hadamt, 

hdum p.p. mahdum. 
destruction, n. kharab; hadam. 
detach, v. a. bfikk, fekkait, fikk p.p. mafkuk. 
details, n. p. tafsilat. 

detain, v. a. b'owwa'*, *owwa"t, *owwe" p.p. m'owwa". 
detest, V. a. bikrah, krfht p.p. makruh. 
devil, n. iblis; shaytan. 
devise, v. a. bdebbir, debbert, debbir. 
devotee, n. zehid. 
devotiotit n. 'ibedi. 
dew, n. nidi. 

dexterous, a. shatir, p. shuttar; mehir. 
dialogue, n. hadis; mukalemi. 

diamond, n. iimazi p. ilmaz (ilmas); (cards) dineri. 
diarrhaay n. is-hal; jeriyan. 
diary, n. yowmiyi; jurnel. 
dice, n. zahr. 

dictionary, n. "amus p. "awamis. 
die, v. n. bmut, mutt, mut. 
differ (from), v. n. bikhtflif, ikhteleft ('an or m'a) ; v. n. 

(3rd per.) biyifri", fara" ('an). 
difference, n. far" p. fru" (fru^at). 
different, a. mukhtilif. 
difficult, a. s'ab c. as'ab. 
difficulty, n. s'obi (s'ubi). 
dig, V. a. bihfur, hafert, hfur p.p. mahfur. 
digest, V. a. bihdum, hadamt, hdum p.p. mahdum. 
dignified, a. jelil; wa"ur. 
dignity, n. wa"ar. 


dilatory y a. buti; himil. 

diligence, ijtihad; ihtimam. 

dilute, V. a. bkhaffif, khaffeft, khaffif p.p. mkhaflfef. 

dijn, a. muzlim. 

dimension, n. "iyes. 

diminish, v. a. bna""is, na""ast, na""is; v. n. (3rd per.) 

biyun"us, na"as; diminished, a. na"is. 
dine, v. n. (at mid-day) bitghadda, tghaddeyt, tghadda; 

biftar, fatart, ftar; (iri the evefting) bit'ashsha, t'ash- 

hait, t'ashsha. 
dining-room, n. udat sufra; beyt at-towli. 
dinner, n. (mid-day) ftur; ghada; (evening) ^asha,; (dinner - 

table), sufra; tovvlit al-ghada. 
dip, V. a. bghammis, ghammast, ghammis ; bghutt, ghatteyt, 

direct, a. dughri; v. a. (to) bdull, delleyt (dellait), dull 

(*ala); direct me to the road, duU-ni 'al at-tari". 
direction, n. tari"; derb; jeha p. jehet; (;«^«^^^;;/^«/) idara 

p. idarat. 
directly, ad. halan; halla". 
director, n. mudir. 
dirt, n. wasakh. 
dirty, a. wisikh; v. a. bwassikh, wassakht, wassikh, p.p. 

disagree, (with) v. n. bikhtilif, ikhteleft, ikhtflif (m'a). 
disappear, v. n. bghib, ghibt (kint ghaiyib), ghib; dis- 
appeared, pres. part, ghaiyib (tised as an adj.). 
disappearance, n. ikhtffa. 
disappoint, V. a. bkhaiyib, khaiyebt; bi"t'a (bu"t'a), "at'at 

amel-i (with pro stiff.) ; disappoiiited, pres. part, khaiyib 

(used as an adj.). 
disappointment, n. khaibi. 



disaster y n. msibi p. msaiyib. 

discernment y n. futni. 

dischargey [send away) v. a. bish-hat, shahatt, shahat, 

p.p. mash-hut; b"all'i, "all'at, "all'i. 
discipline y n. nazam. 
disclose y v. a. bizhir, azhert, zaher; bbeyyin, beyyent, 

discoHtenty n. adem rida. 
discontented y a. ghair radi. 

discount y n. tenzil. •• 

discourteous y a. bila adab; "alii adab. 
discovery v. a. bujad, wajadt, ujad; v. biktishif, iktesheft, 

iktishif ('ala) p.p. mukteshef. 
discuss, V. bitzekir, tzekert, tzekir (fi). 
disease y n. marad. 
diseased, a. marid p. murada. 
disengaged, a. fadi. 
disgracey n. mu'ib. 
disguisey v. bsettir, settert, settir ('ala) v. n. bitsettir, 

tsettert, tsettir p.p. mutsettir. 
disgust y n. kfrih. 
dishy n. jat p. jatet. 

dislocate, v. a. bifkush, fakasht p.p. mefkush. 
disloyaly a. khaiyin. 
disloyalty, n. khiyeni. 

dismal, a. mughimm ; {of persons) keddir. 
dismiss, v. a. bitrud, taradt, trud p.p. matrud. (see discharge), 
dismissal, n, 'azl. 

dismounty (from) v. n. bhowwil, howwelt, howwil ('an). 
disobedience, n, 'isiyanj mkhalifi. 
disobedient y a. 'asi; mkhalif. 
disobey, v. a. bkhalif, khaleft, khalif. 


disorder, n. 'adem tertib. 

dispatch, v. a. bib'at, ba'att, b'at; n. tahrir p. tahrirat; 

mektub p. meketib. 
dispensary, n. farmashia. 
disperse, v. a. bferri", ferra"t, ferri" p.p. mferra"; to be 

dispersed, v. n. bitferri", tferra"t. 
displease, v. a. bkeddir, keddert, keddir p.p. mkeddirj 

it displeases me, bikedder-ni ; to be displeased, v. n. 

bitkeddir, tkeddert. 
displeasure, n. keder. 
disposition, [temper) n. tab'a. 
dispute, n. jidal; toshi (towshi); v. a. [to quarrel with), 

bkhasim, khasamt, khasim; bkhani", khana"t, khani". 
disrespect, n. 'adem ihtiram. 
dissolve, v. a. bdowwib, dowwabt, dowwib; v. n. (3rd per.) 

bidub, dab. 
distance, n. mesefi. ^ 

distant, a. be'id p. ba'ad. /f^^ 
distinct, a. wadih; zahir; beyyin. 
distinguished, a. mumtaz. 
distress, n. di". 
distribute (among), v. a. bferri", ferra"t, ferri" p.p. 

mferra" ('ala); bwazz'i, wazz'ait, wazz'i ('ala). 
distribution, n. tefri". 
district, n. mu"at'a. 
disturb, (fftorally) v. a. bshowwish, showwesht afkar-uh 

p.p. mshowwesh; [of things) v. bkharbit, kharbatt, 

kharbit (fi). 
disturbance, n. kharbata. 

ditch, n. khenda" p. khanadi*' (khn^di"); hafra p. Jiafr. 
ditto, ad. sherh-uh ; mitl-uh [with pro. suff.), 
divan, n. diw^n; ma"*ad. 


dive, V. n. bightus, ghatast, ghtus. 

diver, n. ghattas p. ghattasi. 

diversion, n. tesliyi. 

divert, [to amuse') v. a. bselli, selleyt, selli ; to be diverted, 

V. n. bitsella, tselleyt, tselli ; [to change the direction of) 

V. a. bhowwil, howwelt, howwil. 
divide, v. a. bi"sum, "asamt, u"sum p.p. ma"sum; to be 

divided, bin"isim, in"asamt. 
divideftd, n. faiyiz. 
divine, a. dini; ilahi. 
divorce, n. tala" ; v. a. btalli", talla"t, talli" p.p .mtalla"; 

to be divorced, bittalli'*, ttalla*'t. 
dizzy, a. deyikh. 

do, V. a. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul ('amil); it will do, hiyis-wd,. 
doctor, n. hakim p. hukema; tabib p. atibba. 
docu7nent, n. sakk p. skuk. 
dog, n. kelb p. kleb; female dog, kelbi. 
doll, n. 'aiyibi p. 'aiyeb; I'ubi (I'ebi) p. lu*ab. 
dome, n. "ubbi p. "ibeb. 
domestic, {not wild) a. juwwi. 
domicile, n. beled ; watn ; beyt ; mesken. 
donation, n. 'atiyi p. 'ataiya. 
donkey, n. himar p. hamir; she donkey, himara. 
door, n. bab (beb) p. abwab (bweb) ; trap-door, beb sirr ; 

door-keeper, n. bawweb. 
dot, n. nu'*ta p. nu"at. 
double, a. mda'af; v. a. bda'if, da'aft, da'if p.p. mda'af; 

double-faced, bi wejheyn wilseneyn (lit, with two faces 

and ttuo tongues), 
doubt, n. shekk p. shukukj shubha; v. bshikk, shekkait, 

shikk (fi). 
doubtless, ad. bidun shubhi; bila shekk. 


dough, n. 'ajin. 

dovey n. hamemi p. hamemet c. p. hamem; ring-dove, 

hamem mtowwa" ; turtle-dove, hamemi stetiyi. 
dower, n. sda"; mahr; jihaz. 

down, ad. ila taht ; down-hill, f i nezli ; down-stairs, taht. 
doze, V. n. bin 'as, n'ist, n'as. 
draft, n. muswaddi. 
dragoman, n. terjuman. 
drag, n. {for carriages^ shaht; v. a. bis-hab, sahabt, 

is-hab p.p. mes-hub; (to draw) v. a. bjurr, jarrait, 

jurr p.p. mejrur. 
drain, n. balu'a. 

draper, n. khurdeji; bey'a jukh; jawwakh. 
draught, n. mejra hawa. 

draw, V. a. bsowwir, sowwert, sowwir p.p. msowwer. 
drawer, n. jarur p. jwarir; drawers, n. kalson. 
drawing, n. resm ; sura. 
dreadful, a. mukhif; ha'il (heyil). 
dream, n. menam p. menamat; hulm p. ahlam. 
dress, n. tyeb ; keswi ; v. a. blabbis, labbest, labbis ; v. n. 

bilbus, Ibist, ilbus p.p. melbus; dressed, a. lebis. 
drill, n. t'alim. 
drink, [drinking) n. shirb ; v. a. bishrab, shribt, shrab; 

(to get drunk), v. n. biskar, sikert. 
drive to, (in a carriage) v. n. biruh, riht, ruh, m'al- 

*arabiyi ; birkeb, rkibt, irkeb bil-karrosa. 
drive, n. mishwar; driver, n. 'arabaji. 
drop, n. nu"ta p. nu"at; v. a. birmi, rmait, rmi; v. n. 

bu"'a, wa"**at, u"'a. 
dropsy, n. istis"a. 
drought, n. "aht. 
drown, v. n. bighra", ghara"t (ghari"t), ughra"; v. a. 


bgharri", gharra"t, gharri"; drowned, pres. part. ghar"an 
{used as an adj.). 

drug, n. ijza; dawa. 

druggist, n. saideli; farmashyeni. 

drum, n. tabl p. tbul; [small) dirbekki. 

drunk, {intoxicated) a. sekran; drunkard, n. sikri. 

Druze, Derzi p. Druz. 

dry, a. neshif c. anshaf; yebis; v. a. bnashshif, nashs- 
heft, nashshif; byebbis, yebbest, yebbis; v. n. (3rd per.) 
biyinshef, nishif; biyibes, yebis ; bijiff, jeff; {of clothes 
before the fire) v. a. bihmi, hamait, hmi — 'al an-nar. 

dual, n. mtenna (msenna). 

duck, n. batta p. batt; {wild duck) batt berri. 

due {to), a. mustahi" (li). 

dull, a. belid; berid; (dim) lown-uh kfddir. 

dumb, a. akhras; deaf and dumb, atrash u akhras. 

dun (horse), a. ahmar f. hamra. 

dung, n. zibl; (of horses) fishki. 

duplicate, n. niskha at-teni; in duplicate, niskhateyn. 

durable, a. d^'im. 

during, pr. middi. 

dtist, n. ghabra; dust-cloak, burnus p. baranis; dust-pan, 
mejrud p. mejerid ; duster, n. memsaha. 

duty, n. wejbet; custom duty, resm giimruk. 

dwarf, n. "azemi; "asir al-'*ami. 

dwelling, n. {habitation) beyt p. biyut ; mesken p. msekin. 

dye, n. sbagh; v. a. bisbagh, sabaght, sbagh p.p. masbugh. 

dyer, n. sabbagh. 

dynasty, n. seleli. 

dysentery, n. zintariyi. 



each, a. kill (kull) ; each one, kill wehid (wahid) ; each 

other, ba'ad-um. 
eager, a. raghib. 
eagerness, n. rughbi. 
eagle, n. nisr p. nusur. 
ear, n. izn (idn) p. izneyn (adaneyn); ear-ring, har'a 

p. hala". 
early, a. bekkir ; ad. 'ala biikra ('a bukra) ; to be early, v. n. 

bbekkir, bekkert, bekkir; early in the ^norning, 'a bukra. 
earii, v. a. birbah, rbiht, irbah; bikseb, ksibt, kseb. 
earnest, a. mujtfhid; jad; n. r'abun; in earnest, min jedd, 
earth, n. ard. 
earthenware, n. fakhkhar. 

earthquake, n. zelzeli p. zelezil; {a shock) hezzi. 
earwig, n. abu m'*ass. 
ease, n. suhuli ; (comfort) raha. 
easily, ad. bis-suhuli. 
east, n. mishri"; eastern, a. shar"i. 
easter, n. al-fasah. 
easy, a. heyyin; sihl. 
eat, V. a. bekol, akelt, kol. 
eatables, n. p. ma'kulat (m^'kul^t). 
eating, n. akl. 
ebb [tide), n. jezr. 
ebony, n. abnus. 
eccentric, a. gharib p. ghurb. 
echo, n. si da. 
eclipse, n. (^/ ///^ jw;/) ksuf ash-shems; (of the moon) 

khsuf al-"amr. 


economical, a. mwaffir. 

economy, n. tufir (towfir). 

edge, n. haffi p. haffet c. p. hafefi. 

edict, n. firman p. firmanat c. p. firamin. 

educate, v. a. brabbi, rabbait, rabbi p.p. mrabba ; b'allim, 
'allamt, 'allim. 

education, n. terbiyi. 

eel, n. hanklis. 

efface, v. a. bimhi, mahait, mhi. 

effect, n. netiji p. nete'ij. 

effects, n. p. howeyij ; 'afsh ; awe'i. 

effort, n. himmi; ijtihad. 

egg, n. baida (beyda) p. baidat c. p. baid (beyd); boiled 
eggs, baid maslu"; poached — , baid m"ashr; fried — , 
baid mi"li; soft-boiled — , baid brisht; hard-boiled — , 
baid mistwi; yolk of — , sfar baid; white of — , zlal 
baid; eggshell, "ishr; egg-cup, zarf p. zrufi; to break 
eggs (for cooking), v. a. bif'us, fa"ast, lu"us al-baid; 
egg-plant, n. bettinjan. 

Egypt, Misr; Egyptian, a. misri. 

either — or, con. imma — imma. 

eject, V. a. btall'i, tall'at, tall'i. 

elastic, n. matat; mighait (mugheyt); a. (^'^^?/^) mubhem. 

elbow, n. ku'a p. akw'a. 

elder, a. akbar fil-'umr. 

elect, V. a. bintikhib, intakhabt, intikhib p.p. muntakhab. 

election, n. intikhab. 

elegance, n. zarafi. 

elegafit, a. zarif p. zuraf. 

element, n. mebda p. mabedi. 

elephant, n. fil p. afiyal. 

elevation, n. mahall 'aali; telli p. tellet c. p. tlel (tlal). 


elm-tree, n. bu"isa. 

eloquence i n. fasaha. 

eloquent, a. fasih p. fusaha. 

else, ad. ghair; something else, shey (shi) ghair-uh. 

embark, v. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel fil-merkeb ; v. a. bnezzil, 

nezzelt, nezzil (li). 
ejnbarrass, v. a. blebbik, lebbekt, lebbik p.p. mlebbek. 
embarrassment, n. lebeki. 
embassy, n. sefara. 

embrace, v. a. b'ani", 'ana"t, 'ani" p.p. mu'ani". 
embroider, v. a. btarriz, tarrazt, tarriz p.p. mtarraz. 
embroidery, n. tutriz. 
emerald, n. zmurrud. 
emerge, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a. 
emergency, n. hadisi fow" al-'adi. 
emetic, n. mnatti". 
emigrant, n. mhejir (mhajir). 
emigrate, v. n. bhejir, hajert, hejir; v. binzah, nazaht, 

nzeh (min). 
emigration, n. mhajera. 
eminent, a. mesh-hur; shehir. 
emperor, n. imberatur. 
empire, n. imberatoriyi; saltani. 
employ, v. a. bistakhdim, stakhdamt, stakhdim p.p. 

employer, n. mustakhdim. 
employment, n. shighl (shughl) ; khidmi. 
empress, n. meleki p. meleket; imberatura. 
efnpty, a. fadi ; ferigh ; v. a. bfaddi, faddait, faddi ; bfer- 

righ, ferraght, ferrigh. ^oS-,^^..^ 
enamel, n. mina. 
encamp, (on or in) v. n. bhill, hallait, hill ('ala or fi). 


enclose, v. a. [with a wall) bhowwit, howwatt, howwit 
p.p. mhowwat; v. bhutt, hattait halt howl — ; {one 
thing inside another) bhutt — wast — ; enclosed (of 
papers) wast-uh; leffen tdLY-uh. {with pro. suff.)\ (of land) 
a. msowwan. 

enclosure, n. taswini. 

encourage, v. a. bjerr'a, jerr'at, jerr'a; bnashshit, nash- 
shatt, nashshit. 

end, n. ekhir; niheyi; (of things) taraf; ras; v. a. bkhallis, 
khallast, khallis; v. n. (3rd per.) biyikhlus, khalas. 

endless, ad. bila niheyi; ma luh ekhir. 

endorse, v. a. bzahhir, zahhart, zahhir. 

endorsement, n. jiro. 

endure, v. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtfmil ; v. bisbur, sabert, 
sbur ('ala) ; / will not put up with him, ma bitowwil 
bel-i 'aleyh. 

enemy, n. dushmen ; *adu p. a'ada. 

energetic, a. neshit (nfshit). 

energy, n. neshat; himmi. 

engage (to bespeak), v. burbut, rabatt, urbut ('ala); en- 
gaged, (busy) meshghul; (betrothed) makhtub. 

engagement, n. shighl (shughl) ; (betrothal) khitbi. 

engiyie, n. makina; engine-driver, mikinist. 

engineer, n. mhendis. 

England, Inkilterra; E?iglish, a. inklizi. 

engrave, v. a. bin"ush, na"asht, in"ush p.p. men"ush. 

engraver, n. na" "ash ; haffar. 

engraving, n. na"sh. 

enjoy (oneself), v. n. binbusit, inbasatt. 

enlarge, v. a. bkebbir, kebbert, kebbir p.p. mkebber. 

enmity, n. 'adewi. 

eftormous, a. kbir ktir. 


enough [to be), v. n. (3rd per.) bikeffi, ken kefi; ad. bes. 

enrich, v. a. bighni, ghanait. 

entangle, v. a. b'arbis, 'arbest, 'arbis p.p. m'arbas; en- 
tangled, a. msherbek. 

enter, v. n. bfut, fitt, fut (li); bidkhul, dakhalt, dkhul 
(li) ; covie in [lit, honour us), imper. tfaddal. 

enterprise, n. meshru'a. 

entertain, v. a. be'izum, 'azamt, 'uzum. 

entire, a. kemil; sahih. 

entirely, ad. bit-temem; bil-kemel. 

entrails, n. p. masarin. 

entrance, n. madkhal. 

entreat, v. a. bitrajja, trajjait, trajja. 

envelop, v. a. bliff, lefifeyt, liff p.p. melfuf. 

envelope, n. mughallif; zarf p. zuruf. 

envirotis, n. p. atraf; n. howl. 

envious, a. hasud. 

envy, n. hasad; v. a. bihsud, hasadt, lihsud. 

epidemic, n. weba. 

epitaph, n. kitebit 'al al-"abr. 

equal, a. msewi; [to be equal to) v. a. (3rd per.) biyid'a, 
tiri ; biyiswa, sawa. 

equalise, v. a. bsewi, saweyt, sewi p.p. msewa. 

equality, n. ms^wa. 

equator, n. khatt al-istiwa. 

equip, V. a. bjehhiz, jehhazt, jehhiz p.p. mjehhaz. 

eradicate, v. a. bista'sil, ista'selt, ista'sil p.p. musta'sel. 

erase, v. a. bimhi, mahait, mhi. 

erect, v. a. bibni, benait, bni p.p. mibni; b'ammir, 
*ammert, 'ammir p.p. m'ammer. 

err, v. n. bighlat (bughlat), ghlitt (ghlutt), ghla^. 

errand, n. mishwar; ghara4? 


erroVy n. ghalta p. ghaltat c. p. ghalat. 

erudition^ n. 'ilm. 

escape, [from) v. bikhlus, khalast, khlus (min) ; bitkhallis, 

tkhallast, tkhallis (min); biflet, felett, flut. 
escortf n. ghafr; hifz; under escort, taht al-ghafr; v. a. 

bighfur, ghafert, ughfur. 
especially, ad. khususan ; bi now' khususi. 
essence, n. ruh. 

establish, v. a. biftah, fataht, ftah p.p. maftuh. 
estate, n. p. amlak ; n. riz" p. arza". 
esteem, v. a. be'itibir, 'etebert, e'itibir p.p. mu*eteber. 
estimate, n. tetmin; v. a. btemmin, temment, temmin 

p.p. mtemmen. 
et ccetera, ad. ila akhiri. 
eternal, a. abedi. 
eternity, n. abediyi. 
euttiich, n. tawashi. 
Euphrates, Frat. 

Europe, Urubba; European, a. franji. 
evacuate, v. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk; v. n. binsihib, in- 

saljabt (min). 
evacuation, n. ikhla; terk. 
eveyi, a. sehili; msewa; (of numbers) n. jowz; odd and 

even, jowz u ferd; ad. hatta. 
evening, n. 'ashiyi; in the evening, min 'ashiyi; al-masa; 

to spend the evening , v. a. bis-her, sehirt, s-har. 
event, n. hadisi p. hawadis. 
ever (for), ad. de'imen. 
every, a. kill (kull) ; everybody, n. kill an-nes ; everywhere, 

ad. weyn meken. 
evidence, n. beyyeni. 
evident, a. wadih; zahir; basit. 


evil, n. sherr; a. redi p. redaiya; sherrir. 

ewe, n. n'aji p. na'aj ; ghanimi. 

exact, a. mazbut; temem. 

exactly, ad. bit-temem. 

exaggerate, v. a. bbeligh, balaght, beligh. 

exaggeration, n. mbalighi. 

examijiation, n. imtihan ; fahs; cross-examination, \'s>Ww\.2i!\ 

exaviine, v. a. bifhas, fahast, fhas p.p. mafhus; cross- 
examitie, v. a. bistanti", stanta"t, stanti". 

example, n. mesel (metel) p. emsel; mastra p. msatir 
(msetir); for example, m^telen (meselen). 

excavate, v. a. bihfur, hafert, hfur p.p. mahfur. 

excavation, n. hafra p. hafr. 

exceed, v. bzid, zidt, zid ('ala). 

exceedingly, ad. ktir ktir; lil-ghaiyi. 

excel (in), v. a. bisba", saba"t, sba" (fi). 

excellence, n. fadl. 

Excellency (Your), sa'adt-ak; His — , sa'adt-uh. 

except, con. ilia; ma'ada; v. a. bistesni, stesnait, stesni 
p.p. mustesna. 

exception, n. istisna. 

exceptional, a. mustesna; nedir. 

excess, n. ziedi (zod) ; to excess, bi-kitra. 

excessive, a. ze'id; excessively, ad. bi-ziedi. 

exchange (of money), n. kambio; in exchange for, pr. 
bedel; v. a. (for) b'awid, 'awadt, 'awid (bi). 

excite, v. a. bheyyij, heyyejt, heyyij p.p. mheyyej ; ex- 
cited, a. hdyyij. 

excitement, n. heyyijan. 

exclude, v. a. bikhruj, kharajt, khruj ; bitrud, 'taradt, 
trud p.p. matrud. 

excrement, n. khara. 


excusable, a. m'azur. 

excuse, n. 'uzr; 'itizar; v. a. be'azur, *azert, *azur; excuse 

me, 'azur-ni; to excuse oneself [to], v. n. be'itizir, 'etaiert, 

e'itizir (ila). 
execute, {to kill) v. a. be'idum, 'adamt, 'udum p.p. m'a- 

dum; [to perforin) v. a. bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil 

p.p. mkemmel. 
executiofi, n. 'idam. 
executioner, n. jelled. 

executor (to a will), n. wasi (wusi) p. usiyi. 
exempt [from), v. a. be'ifi, *afait ('afeyt), 'ufi (min) p.p. 

exemption, n. ma'afiyi. 

exercise, n. temrin; [of a horse) mashshi; v. a. [of sol- 
diers) bmarrin, marrent, marrin ; [of a horse) btall'i, 

tairat, tall'i — ila berra. 
exertion, n. jehd. 
exhausted [to be), v. n. bkill, kelleyt; / was exhausted 

with fatigue, kelleyt min at-t'ab; bihlak, hlikt. 
exile, n. serkili; nefi; v. a. bserkil, serkelt, serkil p.p. 

mserkel; binfi, nefeyt, nfi p.p. minfi. 
exist, V. n. (3rd per.) bikun, ken; biyujad, inwajad. 
existence, n. wujud. 
exorbitant, a. fehish; ghali ktir. 

expand, v. n. [y^ per.) biyimted, imted p.p. memdud. 
expansion, n. imtided. 
expect, V. a. bintur, natart, ntur; bintizir, intazert, in- 

tizir p.p. muntazer. 
expectation, n. intizar. 
expedie>it, a. nefi; mwefi". 
expedite, v. a. b'ajjil, *ajjelt, 'ajjil p.p. m'ajjel. 
expedition [milit:), n. hamli; tejridi. 


expel, V. a. bitrud, taradt, trud p.p. matrud. 

expenseSy n. p. masruf. 

expensivey a. ghali; it is — , bikellif ktir. 

experience, n. khibra. 

experienced, a. khabir ; m'owwad. 

experiment, n. imtihan; tijrubi. 

expert, n. keshef p. keshefi ; expertise, n. keshef. 

expire (of a term), v. n. (3rd per.) biyikhlus khalas; 

biyintihi, intaha. 
explain, v. a. bbeyyin, beyyent, beyyin; bwaddih, wad- 

daht, waddih; bfassir. fassert, fassir. 
explanation, n. tefsir. 
explode, v. n. (3rd per.) biyinfijr (biyinfizr), infajr (infazr) ; 

biyinfel'a, infel'a. 
explore, v. a. biktishif, iktesheft, iktishif ; bista'Vi, ista"rait, 

explorer, n. muktishif. 
explosion, n. infijar. 

explosives, n. p. mewad "abilt al-ihtira". 
export, V. a. bsaddir, saddert, saddir p.p. msadder. 
exports, n. p. sadirat. 

expose, V. a. bikshuf, kesheft, kshuf p.p. makshuf. 
expression, n. haiyit al-wijh; [phrase) 'ibara. 
expulsion, n. tard; ikhraj. 
exquisite, a. nefis. 
extend, v. a. btowwil, towwelt, towwil; bmidd meddait, 

midd p.p. memdud. 
extension, n. imtided ; tutwil. 
extensive, a. wes'i. 
exterior, n. berra. 

extinguish, v. a. bitfi, tafait, tfi p.p. mutfi. 
extort (from), v. a. biblus, balast, blus. 


extortion, n. bals. 

extruy a. 'alewi; berrani. 

extract, v. a. [of teeth) bi'Ta, "al'at, i'Ta p.p. ma"lu'a; 

[of essence) bistakhn'j, stakhrajt, stakhrij p.p. mstakhrij. 
extraordinary, ad. fow" al-'adi. 
extravagance, n. israf; sarf. 
extravagant, a. musrif; sarrif. 
extreme, a. shedid p. shidad. 
extre77iely, ad. lil-ghaiyi. 
extremity^ n. taraf p. atraf. 
eye, n. 'ain p. 'uyun; eye-brow, hajib p. hwejib; eye-lash, 

sh'ar 'aini; eye-lid, jifn p. ijfen ; pupil of the eye, bubu 

al-'ain; eye-glasses, 'awenat; eye-tooth, neb p. anyeb; 

eye-witness, shehid p. shuhud ; eye-sight, nazr. 

fable, n. "issa p. "isas; hikeyi. 
fabric, n. hiyeki; nesij. 

fabricate, v. a. b*amil, 'amilt, 'amul ('amfl) p.p. m'amul. 
face, n. wijh p. wujuh; face to face, wijh bi wijh. 
facilitate, v. a. bsehhil, sahhelt, sahhil p.p. msahhel. 
facility, n. suhuli. 
facing, pr. "idd^m. 
fact, n. ha"i"a ; in fact, bil-ha*'i"a. 
faction^ n. hizb p. ahzeb. 
factory, kirkhani p. kirakhin. 
faddy, a. mwaswas. 

fade, V. n. (3rd per.) bibukh, bekh; faded, a. beyikh. 
faint, V. n. bighma, ghmit; bitfah, tfeht; he fainted, 
ghatt *al "elb-uh [lit, his heart was covered). 


fair, a. kwaiyis; zarif p. •L\xx2X\{justy2.^A\ {of complexion) 

lown abyad. 
fairy y n. jinniyi. 
faith J n. imen. 
faithful y a. amin. 
faithless, a. kezib; khaiyin. 
fall, V. n. bu'*'a, wa"'at, \x''d.\ fallen, pres. part. we"'i 

(used as an adj.)-, to fall out of favour , v. n. bis"ut, sa"at. 
fallow land, n. bur. 
false, a. kizb; [of persons) kezib. 

falsify, V. a. bzowwir, zowwert, zowwir p.p. mzowwer. 
fame, n. sit. 

family, n. 'aiyeli p. 'aiyel ('ai'eli). 
famine, n. ju'a; maje'a. 
famous, a. mesh-hur. 
fan, n. marwaha p. marawih. 
fanatic, a. muta'assib. 
fanaticisfn, n. ta'assub. 
fanciful, a. mutwahhim. 
fancy, n. wahm p. owham. 
/C^uC /^r, a. be*id p. ba'ad c. ab'ad; from afar, min be'id. 
farewell, n. wude'a. 
farm, n. *owdi; hanut p. hawanit; v. a. biflah, felaht, 

flah p.p. mafluh. 
farmer, n. fellah. 
farrier, n. bi^ar p. baiatra. 
fashion, n. moda; zey. 
fast, n. sowm (som); siam; a. seri'a c. asr'a; [of colour) 

tebit (s^bit); ad. seri'an; bi-sur'a; v. n. bsum, sumt, 

sum; to be fast (of a watch), 3rd per. f. bittsabbi'*; 

fasten (to), v. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut- (bi) p.p. marbut. 



fat, a. nasih c. ansah; [of animals) smin p. sman; n. 

shahm; beef fat, shahm ba"ar; mutton fat, shahm 

dani ; n. dihni (duhn). 
fatal, a. muhlik. 
fate, n. nasib ; "adr. 
fated, a. ma"adder. 

father, n. ab p. abawat; bey p. h^yW: \ father in law, 'amm. 
fatigue, n. t'ab; v. a. (3rd per.) biyit'ib, ta'ab. 
fatigued, a. t'aben. 

fatten, (of animals) v. a. b'allif, 'alleft, *allif p.p. m'alluf. 
fault, n. zenb p. znub; ghalta p. ghalat; ta"sir; it is 

your fault, zenb 'aleyk; al-ha"" 'aleyk. 
favour, n. m'aruf. 

favourable, a. mwefi"; ma"bul; hulu f. hilwi c. ahla. 
favourite, n. 'aziz; mahbub. 

fear, n. khowf; fez*a; v. bkhaf, khift, khaf (min). 
feast, n. 'azimi. 
feastday, n. 'eid p. 'aiyed. 
feather, n. rishi p. rish c. p. riesh. 
feature, n. tekwin p. tekawin. 
February, shubat. 
fee, n. ujra (ijra). 
feeble, a. da'if p. da'af. 
feed, V. a. bit'am, ta'amt, ta'am. 
feel, V. bhiss, hassait, hiss ('ala) p.p. mahsus. 
feeling, n. hasasi. 
felt, n. libb^di. 

female, n. inta (intai) p. anata (anati). 
fe^ninine, a. mu'annas. 
fence, n. siyej p. siyejet; to fence in, v. a. bseyyij, 

seyyejt, seyyij p.p. mseyyej. 
ferment, v. n. (3i^d per.) biyikhtimir, ikhtamar. 


fermentation y n. ikhtimar; fermenting^ a. mukhtimir. 

ferny n. dishar; khinshara. 

fertile, a. mughsib. 

fester, v. n. (3^^ per.) bi'ammil, 'ammal; biyidghil, da- 

ghal p.p. midghil. 
festival, n. 'eid p. 'aiyed. 

fetch, V. a. bjib, jibt, jib; fetch me a chair, jib li kirsi. 
fetid, a. mintin; mijwi. 
fetter, n. [for prisoners) jenzir p. jnezir ; [for horses) iron^ 

"eyd p. "iyud; rope, shabha. 
feud, n. khisam; dushmen. 
fever, n. himmi; intermittent — , himmi mutfettera ; w^/«- 

rial — , himmi malariyi ; to have fever, v. n. binhamm, 

inhammait; / a7n feverish, ana sikhanan (sakhnan). 
few, a. '*alil. 

fib, n. kizbi p. kizbet; barbuki. 
fickle, a. muta"allib. 
fidelity, n. am^ni. 
fidgety, a. mutharrik ; taiyish. 

fi£ld, n. ha"al p. hu"ulj bistan p. besatin (bsetin). 
fierce, a. shiris; V*ur. 
fig, n. tini p. tin; fig tree, tini. 

fight, n. "ital ; m'areki ; to fight with, v. a. b"atil, "atalt, "atil. 
figure, n. ra"m p. ar'*am; [stature) "ami. 
filbert, n. bundu" (bindu"). 

file^ n. mebrad ; v. a. bibrud, baradt, brud p.p. mabrud. 
fill, V. a. bmelli, melleyt, melli; btelli, telleyt, telli; [a 

pipe) b'abbi, *abbeyt, 'abbi p.p. m'abba. 
filled, a. mel^n. 
film, n. ghash^wi. 
filter, n. misfaiya (misf^yi); v. a. bsaffi, saffait (saffeyt), 

saffi p.p. msaflfa. 


jilthi n. wasakh ; "azr. 

final y a. ekhir (akhir). 

finally, ad. bil-ekhir. 

finance, n. meliyi. 

financial, a. meli. 

fiyid, V. a. bla" "i, la" "ait, la" "i ; bujad, wajadt, ujad 

p.p. mowjud; to be found, v. n. (3rd per.) biyilta"a, 

ilta"a; find out, v. a. bistefhim, stafhamt, stefhim. 
fine, n. jeza na"di; gharami; v. a. bgharrim, gharramt, 

gharrim p.p. mgharram; a. refi'a; da"i"; (beautiful) 

zarif; jemil. 
finger, n. isb'i p. asab'i ; forefinger, shehdi ; little finger, 

fifiish, V. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; bikhlus, khalast, 

fir, n. shirbin. 
fire^ n. nar ; (conflagration) hari"a ; to set on fire, v. a. 

bsha*il, sha'alt, sha*il; to catch fire, v. n. (3rd per.) 

biyihtiri", ihtara"; biyishtf'il, ishta'al; biyiltihib, 

firearms, n. p. slah nariyi. 
fireplace, n. m6"adi ; mawa"id. 
firewood, n. hatab. 
fireworks, n. p. shghal nariyi. 

firtn, a. metin; sebit (tebit); "owi; n. (business) mahall. 
first, a. owwel f. ula ; at first sight, min owwel nazra ; 

at first, owwelen. 
fish, n. samak p. samaket; v. a. bistad, istadt, istad. 
fisherman, n. saiyyed (saiyyad). 
fishing, n. said as-samak ; — rod, "asbit as-said ; — net, 

sh^beki ; — hook, sinnara. 
fist, n. "abda. 


fity a. mnesib; v. n. (3rd per.) binesib, nasib; biyiji, 

ija ('ala). 
fiXy V. a. bmekkin, mekkent, mekkin ; fixed, a. mekken. 
flag, n. bindera; flag-staff, 'amud al-bindera. 
flame, n. shu'ali p. shu'al. 
flarmel, n. flannilla. 
flat, a. mbaltah. 

flatten, v. a. bmahhid, mahhadt, mahhid p.p. mumahhed. 
flatter, v. a. bmelli", mella"t, melli". 
flattery, n. temli". 
flavour, n. t'ami. 
flax, n. "innib. 
flea, n. barghut p. baraghit. 
flee, V. n. bihrub, harabt, hrub. 
fleet, n. *amara. 
flesh, n. lahm. 
flexible, a. leyyin. 
flight, n. harab; ferar. 
flint, n. sowwani. 
float, (on) V. n. bfush, fisht, i"ush ('ala); be'um, 'aimt, 

*uum (fi or 'ala). 
flock, n. "atiy'a p. **uta'an ; (of birds) reff p. rfuf. 
flood, n. hamuli ; seyl ; tufan. 
floor, n. ard al-beyt; marble floor, n. rhkam. 
flour, n. tahin. 

flow, V. n. (3rd per.) biyijri, jara. 
flower, n. zahr p. azhar c. p. zuhur ; flower-pot, sha"fi 

zuhur; hod p. hwad. 
fluid, n. s^'il. 

fly, n. dibbc^ni p. dibb^n; v. n. (y^ per.) bitir, tar. 
foal, n. felu p. ^fliyi. 
foam, n. raghwi. 


fodder, n. 'alaf; 'all". 

fog, n. ghtaita. 

fold, n. tay ; sheep-fold, siri ; v. a. bitwi, tawait (taweyt), 

twi p.p. mutwi. 
foliage, n. owra" as-sajr. 
follow, V. a. bilha", lahi"t, ilha". 
follower, n. teb'i p. atbe'a. 
folly, n. hama"a. 
font, n. jurn al-m*amudiyi. 
food, n. akl. 

fool, n. ahma" p. him"m (himu"). 
foolish, a. ghashim; belid. 
foot, n. ijr (rijl) p. ijreyn; foot-path, derb rijl; foot-rule, 

mitr; "iy^s ; footstep, khatwi ; faskha ; /<?^/-j/t7<?/, skemla ; 

barefoot, a. hafi ; on foot, a. meshi ; at foot's pace, ad. 

for, pr. minsh^n. 

forbid, V. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a. 
force, n. "uwi; v. a. (to) bijbur, jebert, jbur ('ala) p.p. 

mejbur; bilzum, Izamt, Izum ('ala); by force, ad. bil- 

"uwi; jebran. 
ford, n. ma"t'a p. ma"at'a ; mkhada ; v. a. bi"t'a, "at 'at, 

forearm, n. dr'a p. udr'u; se'id (sa'id). 
fore- going, a. sebi"; (fore-mentioned) mazkur. 
forehead, n. jbin; jibhi. 
foreign, a. gharib p. ghurb; Foreign Affairs, al-kharijiyi 

(vide minister); Foreign Office, nezarit al-kharijiyi. 
foreigner, n. ejnebi p. ajenib. 
forenoon, n. "abl ad-dohr. 
foresight, n. basiri. 
forest, n. hirsh p. ahrash. 


forfeit y n. gharami. 

forge, n. kur; bitru", tara"t, tru" p.p. matru"; (of wri- 
ting) V. a. bzowwir, zowwert, zowwir p.p. mzowwer. 

forgery, n. tezwir. 

forget, V. a. binsa, nesit, insa. 

forgive, v. a. bsemih, semaht, semih p.p. masmuh. I for- 
give you, bsemh-ak. 

fork, n. firteki; showki; pitchfork, midraiyi. 

form, n. shikl p. shikel. 

formality, n. teklif p. teklifat. 

former, a. sebi" ; formerly, ad "ablan ; the former, a. 

fort, n. "al'a p. "il'at. 

fortify, V. a. bhassin, hassant, hassin p.p. mhassan. 

fortnight, n. jim'ateyn. 

fortunate, a. sa'id p. so'ada; sahib bakht; he is — , 
hazz-uh taiyib; s'ad-uh "owi. 

fortune, n. hazz ; nasib. 

forwards, ad. ila "iddem. 

fossils, n. p. mutahajjerat. 

foul, a. wfsikh. 

foundation, n. ases p. aseset. 

founder, n. mu*essis. 

fountain, n. *ain p. 'uyun; (jet) nofara; wayside — , 

fowl, n. djeji p. djejet c. p. djej ; fowl-house, beyt ad- 
dj^j; "unn ("inn). 

fox, n. t'alab p. ta'alib. 

fraction, n. kesr. 

fragile, a. seri* al-'atab. 

fragment, n. '*it*a; sha"fi. 

fragrance, n. riha. 


fragranty a. 'utri. 

frame, n. birwaz p. berewiz. 

France, Fransa; Freiich, a. fransewi p. fransewiyi. 

fraud, n. ikhtilas. 

fraudulent, a. mukhtelis. 

freckle, n. kelef. 

free, a. hurr; v. a. bdeshshir, deshshert, deshshir. 

freedom, n. hurriyi. 

freemason, n. fermasun. 

freeze, v. n. (3rd per.) bijellid, jellad p.p. mjellid. 

freight, n. nowulun. 

frequent, a. ktir; frequently, ad. marrat ktiri. 

fresh, a. tari; taza. 

Friday, nahar (yom) aj-jim'a. 

friend, n. habib p. ahbeb (hib^b); sahib p. as-hab; 

sadi" p. asdi"a. 
friendship, n. sada"a; mahabbi. 
fright, n. khowf; fez'a. 
frighten, v. a. bfezz'a, fezz'at, fezz'a; bkhowwif, khow- 

waft, khowwif p.p. mkhowwef ; to be frightened, v. n. 

bifz'a, fiz'it; frightened, a. fez*an. 
fringe, n. hashiyi. 

frock, n. tannura p. tenenir; fisten p. fsetin. 
frog, n. dafd'a p. dfed'i. 
from, pr. min; 'an. 

fro7it, n. wijh; wajih;/r^«/ of the house, wajhit al-beyt. 
frontier, n. hadd p. hudud. 
frost, n. melleh. 
froth, n. raghwi. 
frown, n. 'abas; v. n. be'ibus, 'abast; bhutt, hattait al- 

'u"di; frowning, a. 'abas. 
frugal, a. mwaffir; mesik. 



fruit, n. fweki (faki). 

fruitful, a. mughsib. 

fry, V. a. bi"li,- "alait ("aleyt), i"li p.p. mi"li. 

frying-pan, n. mi"leyi p. ma'^ali. 

fulfil, V. a. bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil p.p. mkemmel. 

full, a. melen. 

fun, n. tesliyi ; mezh. 

funeral, n. jenezi. 

funnel, n. "um'a p. "umu'a. 

funny, a. mudhik; muskhin. 

fur, n. feru. 

furl, V. a. bitwi, tawait (taweyt), twi p.p. mutwi. 

furlough, n. rukhsa. 

furnace, n. firn p. firan. 

furnish, v. a. bifrush, farasht, frush p.p. mafrush. 

furnitiire, n. atet al-beyt; firsh. 

fuss, n. dajji (doji). 

future, n. musta"bil ; in f utter e, b'adeyn ; bil-musta'*bil. 

gain, n. ribh; meksib; v. a. birbah, rbiht, irbah. 

gaiter, n. tma*' p. tma"at. 

gall, n. safra. 

gallery, n. ruwa". 

gallnut, n. jowzit 'afs p, jowz 'afs. 

gallop, n. khaiyel ; v. a. and n. bkhaiyil, khaiyelt, khai- 

yil; V. n. btarid, taradt, tarid. 
gallows, n. meshna'*a. 
gamble, v. n. bil'ab, I'ibt, Tab bil-"imar. 


gambling, n. I'eb al-"imar. 

gaine, n. I'ebi (I'ubi) p. al'ab ; {sport) said ; taridi ; to make 

ga^ne of, v. bidhak, dahikt, dahak ('ala). 
gang, n. zumra p. zumr. 
gaol, n. habs; sijn. 
gaoler, n. sejjen. 

garden, n. jneyni p. jneynetj bistan p. bsetin (besetin). 
gardener, n. jneyneti. 
garlic, n. turn. 

garment, n. towb p. tuwab; [clothes) ty6b. 
garyiet, n. hajr siran. 
garrison, n. p. hurras. 
garter, n. rabta. 
gas, n. ghaz; gas-pipe, aster al-ghaz; gasometer, mitar 

al-ghaz; gas-light, dow min ghaz. 
gash, n. jurh p. juruh (juruha). 
gate, n. bwebi p. bwebet (bawwabi p. bawwabat). 
gate-keeper, n. baww^b. 
gather, v. a. bhowwish, howwesht, howwish ; gather up, 

V. a. blimm, lammait, limm p.p. melmum; [to pluck) 

bla"it, la"att, la"it p.p. mla'at. 
gauze, n. keraishi (kereyshi). 
gay, a. mzeyyen; [cheerful) farhan. 
gazelle, n. ghazel p. ghizlen. 
gelatiyie, n. jelatina. 
geld, V. a. bikhsi, khasait, khsi; [of horses) btowshin, 

towshent, towshin. 
gelding, n. khassi; tawashi. 

gem, n. jowhera p. jewehir; (johera p. jawahir). 
gender, n. jins p. ajnes. 
general, a. 'umumi ; 'am ; n. mushir ; general of division, 

feri"; 7naj or -general, mir liwa. 


generally y ad. *umumen ; 'itiyadiyen. 

generation^ n. jil p. ajiyel. 

generosity, n. kerem. 

generous, a. kerim p. kiirama; khaiyir. 

genius, n. zeka (zika). 

gentle, a. latif p. lutafa ; leyyin; {quiet) hedi. 

gentleman, n. khowaja p. khowajat. 

gently, ad. bi lutf; [slowly) 'ala mahl-uh [zu it h pro. stiff .). 

genuine, a. sahih. 

geography, n. jighrafiyi. 

geometry, n. 'ilm al-hindisi. 

geranium, n. khubbezi franjiyi. 

Germany, Almania; German, a. almani. 

gesture, n. ishara. 

get, V. a. bjib, jibt, jib; (acquire) btall'i, tall'at, tall'i; 

bikseb, ksibt, kseb; get up, v. n. b"um, "umt, "um; 

get oifer, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala) ; get rid of, v. n. 

bitkhallis, tkhallast, tkhallis (min); get into the way 

of, V. n. bit'ovvwad, t'owwadt, t'owwad ('ala). 
ghost, n. khiyel; Holy Ghost, ruh al-"udus. 
giant, n. jebber (jebbar). 
Gibraltar, jebeltari". 
giddiness, n. dowkha (dokha). 
giddy, a. deyikh; he is giddy, ras-uh taiyish. 
gift, n. hediyi. 
gifted, a. shatir p. shuttar. 

gild, V. a. bdahhib, dahhabt, dahhib p.p. mdahhab. 
gilt, a. mdahhab; mutli bid-dahab. 
gimlet, n. berrimi. 
ginger, n. jenzebil. 
gipsy, n. nuri p. nawar. 
girdle, n. zinnar p. znenir. 


girlj n. bint p. benat (ben^t). 

girth, n. hizem p. hizemet; tighten, loosen the girths, 

shidd, hill al-hizemet. 
give, V. a. b'ati, 'atait, 'ati ; give it me, 'ati-ni yeh (yah). 
gizzard, n. "ansa. 

glad, a. mesrur; to be glad, v. n. binbiisit, inbasatt. 
gladness, n. surur. 
glance, n. nazra, lahza. 
glass, n. "izaz ("izez) ; (for drinking) kibbeyi ; kasi ; (field) 

nadur; nadara. 
glitter, V. n. (3rd per.) biyilm*a, lam'a. 
globe, n. kura; {of a lamp) kloba p. klobat. 
gloomy, a. muzlim; {of persojis) mkedder. 
glory, n. mejd. 
gloss, n. lima'an, 

glove, n. keff p. kfuf ; a pair of gloves, jowzi kfuf. 
glow-worm, n. serej al-leyl. 
glue, n. ghiri ; glue-pot, bri"al-ghiri. 
gnat, n. sikket p. swetki. 
gnaw, V. a. (3rd per.) biyun"ur, na'*ar. 
go, V. n. bruh, riht, ruh ; going, pres. part, raih ; it is 

going to happen, bedd-uh yesir; it is not going to 

happen, ma bisir ; there is going to be, raih yesir ; 

raih yekun; go up, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala); go 

down, binzel, nzilt, inzel ; go out, bidhar, dahart, dhar. 

goad, n. mesas; v. a. bidrub, darabt bil-mesas. 

goat, n. 'anzi p. 'anzat; m'aziyi p. ma'azi; goat-herd, 

ma'az; ra'i. 
God, allah ; God preserve you, allah yahfz-ak ; God forbid, 

allah la yismah (la ya"addir) ; for God's sake, minshen 

allah; God willing, inshallah; thank God, al-hamd 



gold, n. dahab. 

goldsmith, n. saiyigh p. siyagh. 
gongy n. na"us. 
tfts^^xt^od, a. mlih p. mlah; taiyib c. atyab; jeyyid c. ahsan. 
good-bye, ad. m'as-salemi ; khatir-kum. 
gooodness, n. judi. 
goods, n. p. badaiy'i; bda'a. 
goose, n, wazzi p. wazz. 
gospel, n. injil. 
gossip, n. 'alk. 
gourd, n. "ar'aa p. "ar'aat. 
gout, n. da'i al mfesil. 
govern, v. a. bihkum, hakamt, hkum ; (administer) v. a. 

bdebbir, debbert, debbir. 
goverment, n. hukumi; /^r^/ government, hukumi ma- 

governor, n. hakim; mutsarrif; governor general, wali 

grace, n. zurf. 
gradually, ad. bitedrij. 
grain, n. habbi p. hbub. 
grammar, n. nahu. 
granary, n. hasil; beyiki p. beweyik. 
grand-daughter, n. hafidi; bint bint p. ul^d bint. 
grand-father, n. jidd p. jdud. 
grand-mother, n. sitt p. sittat (sittet); imm imm. 
grandson, n. hafid; ibn ibn p. uled ibn. 
grant, v. a. bijib, jibt, jib. 
granted, a. msellem. 
grapes, n. p. *inib ('inab); green grapes, n. husrim ; ^tt«^// 

of — , n. *an"ud (p. 'an^"id) *inib. 
grass, n. hashish. 


grass-hopper, n. jundub p. jnedib. 

grateful, a. memnun; shekur. 

grater, n. mabrashi. 

gratis, ad. belesh,; bila mesari. 

gratitude, n. shukr. 

grave, n. "abr p. "ubur. 

gravel, n. p. bahs. 

gravy, n. mar"a. 

graze, v. n. (3rd per.) biyir'a, re'i (ra'i). 

grease, n. shahm; dihni (duhn); v. a. bidhan, dahant, 

dhan p.p. madhun. 
greasy, a. midhin. 

great, a. kbir c. akbar p. kbar; 'azim p. 'azam. 
Greece, beled al-yunan (al-arwam); Greek, a. yunani; 

rumi ; Greek church, kenisit ar-rum ; Greek catholic, rum 

katolik; Greek orthodox, rum ortodoks. 
greedy, a. shi'rih; majfu'a; mfejj'an. 
green, a. akhdar f. khadra p. khudr. 
green-grocer, n. khudarji. 
greens, n. khudra. , 

grey, a. rimedi. 

grey-hound, n. kelb slu"i (slai"i). 
gridiron, n. msabb'a. 
grief, n. ghamm ; hizn. 
grieve, v. a. bkeddir, keddert, keddir; to be grieved, 

V. n. binghamm, inghammait; it grieves me, bigh- 

grind, v. a. bit-han, tahant, t-han p.p. mat-hun ; bijrush, 

jarasht, jrush p.p. majrush. 
grindstone, n. jelkh. 

groan, n. *anin; v. n. bi'in, 'anait ('aneyt), 'in. 
grocer, n. 'attar. 


groom, n. se'is (sa'is) p. siyes; v. a. bhiss> hassait (has- 
seyt), hiss p.p. mahsus ; bsus, sust, sus ; btemmir, tem- 
mert, temmir. 

ground, n. ard. 

groiind-fioor, n. taba"i tahteni. 

groundless, a. batil; ad. bila ases; it is groundless, ma 
luh asl. 

group, n. [persons) jema'a; sirbi; {money) surra. 

grow, V. n. [persons) bikber, kebirt; (plants) (3rd per.) 
biyinmi, nimmi; grown up^ a. reshid (rashid); full- 
grown, a. midrik. 

grumble, [at) v. bitdemmir, tdemmert, tdemmir (min) ; 
V. n. bit"am"am, ta"am"amt. 

guarantee, n. kefeli; [person) kefil. 

guard, n. haris p. hurras; v. a. bihrus, harast, hrus p.p. 

guardian, n. wasi (wusi) p. usiyi. 

guess, V. a. bihzur, hezirt, hzur. 

guest, n. daif (deyf) p. diyuf. 

guide, n. delil; guide-book, delil sefer; v. a. [to) bdull, 
dellait (delleyt), dull ('ala). 

guild, n. rabta. 

guilt, n. zenb. 

guilty, a. miznib; mijrim. 

guitar, n. "itar; 'ud ; tanbur. 

gulf, n. khalij p. khiljen. 

gum, n. simgh (samgh); [of teeth) nirit as-snen. 

gun, n. barudi ; bund"iyi p. bnedi" ; {double-barrelled) 
n. jift p. jifuti. 

gunboat, n. merkeb harbi. 

gunner, n. topji p. topjiyi. 

gunpowder, n. barud. 


gut, n. misran p. masarin. 

gutter, n. mizreb p. mezerib; gutter-pipe, "astal ("aster) 

gymnasium, n. marsah (mala'ab) al jimnastik. 
gymnastics, n. jimnastik. 


habit, n. 'adi p. a'adet c. p. 'awe'id. 

hail, n. barad (bered); v. n. (3rd per.) biyinzel, nizil 

bered; hailstone, baradi; hail-storm, zakhat bered. 
hair, n. sh'ara p. sh'ar; camel's hair, wabr aj-jem^l. 
hair-dresser, {barber) n. halla*'. 
hairy, a. mish'arani. 
half, n. nuss; in halves, bin-nuss; half-price, nuss at- 

temen; half-way, nuss ad-derb. 
hall, n. dehliz; memsha. 

halty'V. n. bu"af, u"ift, u"af; bwa""if, wa""aft, .wa""if. 
halter, n. rasan; ma'Vad. 
ham, n. janbun. 
hamlet, n. mezra'a p. mezer'i. 
ha^niner, n. shekush ; [large) matra"a; v. a. bitru", tara"t, 

tru"; bdu"", da" "ait, du"" p.p. mad"u". * 
hammock, n. mejruha (marjuha). 
hafid, n. id p. ideyn (daiyat); right-hand, id al-yemin 

left-hand, id ash-shimel. 
hand-cuff, n. "eyd p. "iyud; hadid. 
handful, n. [one hand) kemshi; [both hands) hafni. 
handkerchief, n. mahremi p. maharim. 
handle, n. meski; "abda. 
handsome, a. jemil c. ejmel. 


handwritings n. khatt p. khutut. 

hang, (up) V. a. b'alli", 'alla"t, 'alii" p.p. ma'alla" ; v. n. 

{dowfi) bit'alla", t'alla"t. 
happen, v. n. (y^ per.) bisir, sar; biyijri, jara. 
happiness, n. keyf; surur; hazz. 
happy, a. mabsut; farhan. 

harass, v. a. bit'ub, ta'ebt, te'ib (tu'ub) p.p. met'ub. 
harbour, n. mina p. mien. 
hard, a. "asi c. a"asa; yebis; [difficult] s'ab f. s'ubi c. 

as*ab; hard up, ma*asur; mutdaiyi". 
harden, v. n. [^^^ per.) bijiff, jeff; biyi"sa, "isi. 
hardly, ad. bil-kedd ; bi s'ubi (s'obi). 
hard mouthed [of a horse), a. ras-uh "asi (ti"il). 
hardship, n. mesha" "a. 
hardy, a. "owi p. "awaiya. 
hare, n. arnab p. aranib. 
harem, n. harim p. hurum. 
harm, n. darar ; aziyi ; there is no harm, ma biseyl (///. 

there is no question), 
harmful, a. mdurr; mu'zi. 
harmless, a. ghair (mush) mdurr. 
harness, n. ta"m al-'arabiyi; v. bshidd, sheddait, shidd 

('ala) ; v. a. {put the horses to) bikdun, kedent, kdun p.p. 

harp, n. ^^anun. 
harsht a, "asi; j^fi; khishn. 
harvest, n. hisad. 
hash, n. yakhni. 
hasp, n. sukr (sikr). 
haste, n. *ajeli; make haste, v. n. browwij, rowwajt, 

rowwij; bist'ajil, st'ajelt, st'ajil; hasten, v. a. b'ajjil, 

'ajjelt, 'ajjil; hasty, a. 'ajul. 



hat^ n. birneyta p. buranit. 

hatch, V. a. (3rd per. f.) bitfa" "is, fa""esit; to be hatched^ 

V. n. (3rd per. f.) bitif'us, fa"esit. 
hatchet, n. ferra'a; fes; balta. 
hate, V. a. bibghud, baghadt, bghud. 
hatred, n. bughda. 
haughtiness, n. kibriya. 
haughty, a. mutkebbir. 
haul down, v. a. bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil. 
have, V. / have etc, li ; 'ind-i, 'ind-ak etc, [vide grammar 

verb 'to have*), 
hawk, n. baz p. bez^t. 
hay, n. hashish yebis. 
haze, n. dabeb (dabab). 
hazy, a. madabdbi. 
he, pro. hu (hui). 
head, n. ras p. ru'us (rus); at the head of, fi ras; fi 

owwel; *'iddem; head to foot, min ras-uh li "adem-uh 

(li k'ab rijleyh); head over heels, sha"labi ma'Uabi; 

heads or tails, tura ow na*'shi. 
headache, (I have, I had a) ras-i biyuj*a-ni, waj'a-ni. 
headstrong, a. 'anid; ras-uh "owi. 
heal, V. n. (3rd per.) bitib, tab; biyibra, bfri. 
health, n. sihha (sahha); his health, suhht-uh. 
healthy, a. nasih ; suhht-uh taiyib ; [of place) hawa-h taiyib, 
heap, n. kumi (komi) p. kuam. 
hear, v. a. bism'a, sma'at, sm'a p.p. masmu'a. 
heart, n. "alb ("elb) p. "ulub; fuad; (at cards) kubba; 

by heart, ad. ghaiban; *al ghaib. 
heat, n. harara ; showb (shob) v. a. bsakhkhin, sakhkhant, 

sakhkhin p.p. msakhkhan. 
heathen, n. wateni p. wateniyi. 


heaveny n. sema. 

heavy, a. ti"il c. at"al p. ta"al. 

hedge y n. siyej p. siyejet. 

hedgehogy n. "unfuz p. "anafiz ("unfud, p. "anafid); ke- 

bebit shok. 
heely n. k'ab p. ka'ab; heel ropey shkel p. shkelet. 
heighty n- 'ulu; [of stature) tul; "ami. 
heiry n. weris p. wurras (warasi). 
helly n. jehennam. 
hebnety n. khuzi p. khuaz. 
helpy n. mse*adi ; v. a. bse'id, se'adt, se'id ; it cannot be 

helpedy mush fil-id; the matter could not be helped, 

hal-mes'eli ma ba"it fil-id. 
helpless y a. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez. 
heniy n. hashiyi. 
hemlocky n. showkeran. 
hemorrhoidy n. basur p. bwesir. 
hempy n. "innib. 
heuy n. djeji p. djejet c.p. djej. 

hence y ad. min hown; henceforth, min halla" u raih. 
(j^ hery [pro. suff.) ha (a). 
herby n. 'ushb p. 'asheb. 
herdy n. "atiy'a p. *'uta*an. 

herey ad. hown; here and there y hown u hown. 
hereditary y a. wurti (urati); bil-irs. 
heresyy n. harta"a. 
heretiCy a. hartu'*i p. harat**a. 
hermit, n. n^sik p. nussak ; z^hid p. zuhad. 
hero, n. batal p. abtal. 
herself, pro. i^t-ha. 
hesitate, v. n. bitwa** "af, twa""aft, twa*"'af; bitreddad, 

treddadt, treddad. 


hesitation, n. tereddud. 

hiccup, n. hazzu"a (hazza"). 

hide, V. a. bkhabbi, khabbait, khabbi p.p. mkhabba. 

hiding-place, n. mikhbeyi. 

high, a. 'aali c. a'ala; high-handed, a. mustebidd. 

Highness (Your), simu-ak; His — simu-uh. 

highway^ n. sikki sultaniyi. 

hill, n. telli, p. tellet c.p. tlel (tlal). 

hilt, n. "abda. 

him, (pro. suff.) uh (h). 

himself, pro. zet-uh. 

hinder, v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a; bsudd, saddait, sudd 

p.p. masdud. 
hindoo, n. Hindi p. hunud. 
hinge, n. mfassali p. mfassalat. 
hint, n. ishara. 
hire, n. ujra (ijra); kira; (let on hire) v. a. b'ejjir, ejjert, 

ejjir; bikri, kerait, kri; (take on hire) v. a. biste'jir, 

ste'jert, ste'jir; bistikri, stekrait, stikri. 
hirer, n. muste'jir. 
his, (pro. stiff.) uh (h). 
history, n. tarikh (terikh). 
hit, V. a. bidrub, darabt, drub p.p. Vi\d.^x\x\i\(7iot to miss) 

bsib, sibt, sib. 
hither, ad. ila hown. 
hitherto, ad. li hadd al-wa"t. 
hoe, n. mejrafi. 

hoist, V. a. birf a, ref'at, irfa p.p. marfu'a. 
hold, n. "ar al-merkeb; v. a. bimsik, mesakt, msuk p.p. 

memsuk; v. a. (contain) 3rd per. bise'a, se'a; to hold 

out, V. n. b"ewim "evvamt, "ewim. 


hole, n. jura p. juar; tu"ub p. tu"ubi (ti"ib); {small) 
bukhsh p. bkhushi. 

holiday, n. 'eid p. 'aiyed; t'atil; btali; rukhsa; to take a 
— , V. bbattil, battalt. 

Holiness (to the Pope), Your — , "adesit-kum ; His — , 
"adest-uh. (Patriarch), Your — , ghibtat-kum ; His — , 
ghibtt-uh. (Metropolitan), Your — , siedit-kum; His — , 

Holland, Hulanda; Dutch, a. hulandi. 

hollow, a. mjowwif; mjowwar; v. a. bjowwif, jowweft, 
jowwif p.p. mjowwaf. 

holsters, n. "ubur. 

holy, a. m"addas. 

home, n. (house) beyt p. biyut; (country) watn; beled. 

hone, n. msenn. 

honest, a. amin p. limena; honesty, n. ameni. 

honey, n. 'asel; honeycomb, "urs 'asel. 

honorary, a. ikrami. 

honour, n. sheref; (respect) 'ird; improbity) namus; v. a. 
bukrim, akramt, krim; (to do the honour) v. a. bsher- 
rif, sherreft, sherrif; {to have the honour) v. n. bit- 
sherrif, tsherraft, tsherrif ; will you do me the honour 
of coming to see me, btsherrif-ni ; / had the honour 
of going to see him, ana tsherraft li 'ind-uh ; in honour 
of, minshen; li ejl-uh {^ith pro. stiff.), 

honourable, a. musta"im. 

hood, n. {of a cloak) "ubu'a; (of a carriage) kebbut. 

hoof, n. hafir p. hawefir. 

hook, n. shenkel p. shnekil; killabi p. klelib; hook atid 
eye, bikli wa *irwi. 

hoop, n. tara. 

hope, n. amel p. amd; v. n. bit'ammel, t'immelt. 


hopeful (it is), fih raja (amel). 

hopeless (it is), ma fih raja (amel). 

hops, n. p. hashishit ad-dinar. 

horizon, n. uf". 

horn, n. "arn p. "urun. 

hornet, n. debbur p. dbebir. 

horrible, a. mukhif; ha'il. 

horse, n. hisan p. uhsni c. p. kheyl; dabbi p. dawab; 
(blood) kehil; {pack) kedish p. kidsh; (stallion) fahl 
p. fuhul; (gilding) tawashi ; (bay) ahmar f. hamra; 
(bay with black legs) ahmar mharra" ; (black) adham 
f. dahma; (dark chestnut) kestanewi; (light chestiiut) 
ash"ar f. sha"ra; (grey) azra" f. zer"a; (iron grey) 
azra'* hadidi; (light grey) azra" wadih; (dappled grey) 
mba*' "aj ; (grey with black points) akhdar f. khadra ; 
(reddish grey) mawaradi ; (white) hamemi ; (with white 
stockings) mhanjal; on horseback, 'al al-hisan; khaiyal 

horse-cloth, n. kuben (kuban). 

horseman, n. khaiyel p. khaiyeli. 

horse-shoe, n. n'ali p. na'al (n'al); nadwi p. nadwet. 

hospitable, a. kerim p. kurama ; he is — , beyt-uh maftuh. 

hospital, n. khastakhani. 

hospitality , n. diyafi. 

host, n. sahib al-beyt; hostess, sahbit al-beyt; (among 
Bedouins) m'azzib f. m'azzbi. 

hostage, n. rahn p. ruhuni. 

hostile, a. khusm p. akhsam. 

hostilities, n. harb. 

hot, a. showb (shob) c. ashwab; sukhn; harr; to be hot, 
V. n. bshowwib, showwebt. 

hotel, n. lukanda. 


houTy n. se*a p. se'at. 

house, n. beyt p. biyut; {large house [Beirut]) hara p. 

harat; v. a. bsekkin, sekkent, sekkin. 
household, n. *aiyeli p. 'aiyel ('ai'eli). 
hoTv, ad. kif; however, m'a zelik; how mauy, kam; how 

much^ "add esh. 
howl, n. *awi; v. n. (3rd per.) bi'owi, 'owa; biyinbah, 

hulk, n. jism al-merkeb. 
humayi, a. insani; besheri. 

humanity, n. insaniyi; he is humane, fih insaniyi. 
humble, a. mutwad'i; humility, n. tawad'u. 
hump {of a camel), n. hadabbi (hadbi). 
humpback, a. ahdab. 

Hungary, beled mejer; Htmgarian, a. mejeri. 
hunger, n. ju'a. 

hungry, n. ju'an; to be Imngry, v. n. bju'a, je'ut. 
hunt, V. a. bistad, istadt, istad. 
hunter, n. saiyyed (saiyyad). 
hunting, n. said. 
hurricane, n. zowba*a (zoba'a). 
hurry, n. 'ajeli; v. n. bist'ajil, st'ajelt, st'ajil; browwij, 

rowwajtf rowwij ; v. a. b'ajjil, 'ajjelt, 'ajjil p.p. m'ajjel. 
hurt, V. a. bdurr, darrait, durr p.p. madrur; bwajj'i, 

wajj'at, wajj'i; to be hurt, v. n. bindarr, indarrait; 

to hurt, V. n. (3rd per.) biyuj'a, waj*a (wij'e). 
husband, n. zowj (joz) p. rjel. 
hush, {itnper.) hus f. husi. 
husk, n. "ishri p. "ishr ("ushur). 

hut, n. kukh p. akwakh ; {for silkworms) khuss p. khsas. 
hyacinth, n. khazemi p. khazam. 
hyena, n. dab'a p. db'a. 


hymrij n. ternimi. 
hypocrisy, n. ri'a. 
hypocrite, n. mra'i. 

/, pro. ana. 

ibex, n. w'al p. wa'al. 

ice, n. jlid; snoiv ice, telj ; manufactured ice, ]\\dvcidi,mQ\; 

ices, buza; dondurma. 
idea, n. fikr p. afkar. 

identical, a. bi zet-uh; bi nefs-uh (zvith pro. stiff.), 
idiom, n. istilah. 

idiot, n. ablah; a. m'atuh; belid. 
idle, a. keslen p. kesela. 
idleness, n. kesel. 

idol, n. weten (waten) p. owten; sunm p. asnam. 
idolater, n. wateni p. wateniyi. 
idolatry, n. 'ibedit al-asnam. 
//, con. izaken; inken (with pres. tense); iza; low (with 

ignorance, n. jeheli. 
ignorant, a. jehil, p. juhhel; mghaffal. 
ill, a. marid p. murada ; sakhin (sakhnan) ; to fall ill, 

V. n. bimrad, maridt; biskhun, sakhant. 
illegal, a. ghair sher'i; haram. 
illegitimate, a. bandu". 

illiterate, a. ghair (mush) mu'allem; mau mrabba. 
illfiess, n. marad. 
illuminate, v. a. bzeyyin, zeyyent, zeyyin p.p. mzeyyen; 

bnowwir, nowwert, nowwir p.p. mnovvwer. 


illumination, n. tenwir; zini. 

illustrate, v. a. bsowwir, sowwert, sowwir p.p. msowwer. 

illustration, n. resm p. rusum; sura p. suar. 

illustrious, a. shehir. 

image, n. timsel p. temesil. 

imagination, n. owham; tesowwur. 

imagine, v. a. bitsowwir, tsowwert, tsowwir. 

imitate, v. a. bi"ellid, "elledt, "ellid p.p. m'elled. 

imitation, n. ta"lid. 

immediately, ad. "awem; fil-hal. 

immense, a. kbir p. kbar; wes'i. 

imminent, a. "arib p. "urab. 

immoderate, a. miifrit. 

immodest, a. *'alil al-haiya. 

immunity, n. ma'afiyi; 'afu; imtiyez. 

impartial, a. 'adil. 

impartiality, n. ha" " ; 'adl. 

impassable, a. mesdud. 

impatience, n. "illit as-sabr ; nar. 

impatient, a. nirani; "alii as-sabr; he is impatient, tab'a- 
uh hazi"a (nar). 

impede, v. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p. mesdud. 

imperfect, a. na"is p. nu"as. 

imperceptible, a. ghair (mush) mahsus. 

imperial, a. mulukaniyi. 

impertiiience, n. wa"aha. 

impertinent, a. wi"ih. 

implicate, v. a. bdakhkhil, dakhkhalt, dakhkhil; impli- 
cated in, luh dukhl fi; a. m"arish. 

import, V. a. bijlub, jalabt, jlub p.p. majlub. 

importance, n. ehemiyi. 

important, a. muhimm c. ahamm. 


imports, n. p. waridat. 

importunate, a. lajuj; ti"il. 

impossible, a. ghair (mush, mau) mumkin; it is impos- 
sible, la yumkin ; ma bisir. 

impossibility, n. 'adem imkan (imken). 

impose {on), v. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh p.p. 

impostor, n. mzowwir; kezzeb. 

impression, n. te'esir. 

imprison, v. a. bihbus, habast, hbus p.p. mahbus. 

imprisonment, n. habsi. 

improbable, a. ghair (mush) muhtfmil. 

improper, a. ghair (mush) leyi". 

improve, v. a. bhassin, hassant, hassin p.p. mhassan; 
V. n. bithassan, tahassant, tahassan ; (3rd per.) bisir, 
sar fih tahsin. 

improvement, n. tahsin; nejeh (nejah). 

^mprudence, n. hama"a; jeheli. 

imprudent, a. jehil p.. juhhel; ahma" p. him"in (himu"). 

imptinity, n. berrat; with impunity, bila **isas. 

impure, a. maghshush; mush khaHs. 

in, pr. fi; bi; dekhil; juwwa; iyi ^w<^ ^7^^, juwwa u berra; 
i?idoors, fil-beyt; in order to {that), hatta (ta); in so 
fUr^as, *'add ma. 

inability, n. 'ajz ; 'adem imken. 

inaccessible, a. be'id p. ba'ad. 

inuccurccte, a. ghair (mush) mazbut. 

inadmissible, a. ghair (mush) ma"bul. 

inattention, n. ghiflet; 'adem intibeh. 

incapable, a. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez. 

incapacity, n. 'ajz. 

incefise, n. bakhur. 


incessant, a. de'im. 

incident, n. hadisi p. hawadis. 

inclination, n. meyl. 

include, v. a. bdakhkhil, dakhkhalt, dakhkhil. 

included, ad. min aj-jumli; hicluding, ad. bi ma fih. 

incogjiito, a. mutnekkir. 

income, n. madkhul; dukhl (dakhl). 

hicomprehensible, a. ghair (mush) mafhum. 

inconsistent, a. 'adim as-sebet. 

inconvenience, n. kilfi; ti"L 

inconvenient, a. ghair (mush) mwefi"; ti*'li. 

incorrect, a. ghair (mush) sahih. 

increase, n. zod; v. a. bzid, zidt, zid; v. n. (3rd per.) 

bizid, zad. 
incredible {it is), ma biyitsadda". 
incurable, a. 'addal; he {it) is incurable, ma luh dawa; 

falij la ta'alij. 
indebted [of debt), a. mediyun ; [obligation) memnun ; 

/ am indebted to you, ana (mediyun) memnun-ak. 
indecent, a. razil p. arzal. 
indeed, ad. bil-ha"i"a. 

indefatigable {he is), ma bikill min at-t'ab. 
indefinite, a. mubhem. 
indemnify, v. a. b'owwid, 'owwadt, 'owwid p.p. m'owwad 

('ala of the person) ; / will indemnify you for the loss, 

b'owwid 'aleyk al-khisara. 
indemnity, n. t'awid. 
independence, n. isti*'lal. 
independent, a. musta"il. 
index, n. fihris (fahras). 

India, beled al-hind; Indian, a. hindi p. huntid. 
iyidiarubber , n. mighait; {eraser) mahaiyi. 


indifferent [careless), a. ghair (mush) mbeli, it is indiffe- 
rent, mitl ba'ad-uh. 

indigestion, n. 'usr hadm; su hadm; to have — , v. n. 
bintikhim, intakhamt; bisir, sar li takhmi. 

indigo, n. nil. 

indirect, a. ghair (mush) dughri. 

indirectly, ad. bil-wasta. 

indiscretion, n. hama"a. 

indisposed, a. ghair (mush) mabsut ; / am — , ma li keyf. 

indistinct, a. sa"im; ghair (mush) wadih. 

i^idividual, n. zalemi p. zilam. 

industrious, a. mujtehid. 

industry, n. ijtihad. 

inevitable, a. lezim (lazim). 

inexperienced, a. ghashim; ghair (mush) m'owwad; ghurr 

infancy, n. tufuliyi. 

infant, n. tifl p. atfal. 

infantry, n. baiyada (biyeda). 

infection, n. 'adwi. 

infectious, a. m'edi. 

inferior, a. adna; owta. 

infidelity, n. khiyeni. 

infirm, a. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez. 

influence, n. nufuz; satwi. 

influential, a. nefiz; sahib nufuz. 

influenza, n. nezli sidriyi. 

inform (of), v. a. bkhabbir, khabbert, khabbir ('an); 
b'arrif, 'arraft, 'arrif (f i) ; inform me of what happened 
yesterday, 'arrif-ni fiUi sar imbereh. 

information, n. m'alumiyi. 

ingratitude, n. inkar aj-jemil. 


inhabit, v. biskun, sekent (fi) p.p. meskun. 

ifihabitanf, n. ahl al beled ; inJiabitayits, n. p. sukken ; 

ahali (aheli). 
inherits v. a. buras (burat), warist (waritt) p.p. mowrus 

inheritance, n. 'irs p. miras (mawaris). 
injure, v. a. bdurr, darrait, durr p.p. madrur; bu'zi 

(bi'zi), azait (azeyt), zi. 
injury, n. darar; aziyi. 
injustice, n. zulm. 

ink, n. hibr; inkpot, daweyi (dawaiyi). 
inlaid, a. {witJi viotJier of pearl) mta'am ; [witJi jewels) 

inn, n. lukanda; khan. 
innocence, n. bera'a. 
innocent, a. beri p. ibriya. 
inquire (about), v. bist'alim, st'alamt, st'alim ('an); bis- 

takhbir, stakhbert, stakhbir ('an). 
insane, a. mejnun. 
insanity, n. jnun. 

inscription, n. kitebi ; khatt p. khutut. 
insect, n. debbebi p. debbebet. 
insecure, a. ghair (mush) amin. 
insensible, a. fe"id al-hasasi ; ad. bila hasasi. 
insert, v. a. bidkhil, adkhalt, idkhil ; [of writing) bhash- 

shi, hashshait, hashshi p.p. mhashsha. 
inside, ad. juwwa; d^khil ; inside out, 'al al-"elb. 
insist (on), v. bharrij, harrajt, harrij ('ala). 
insolence, n. sefaha; wa"aha. 
insolent, a. sef ih ; wi"ih. 
insolvent, a. miflis. 
inspect, v. a. bifl?as, fahast, fhas. 


inspection, n. fahs; teftish. 

inspector, n. mufettish; fahis. 

instalment, n. "ist p. u'^Sat (u"suta). 

instance, n. meteli p. met^l (mesel); for instance, mese- 

len (mctelen). 
instant, n. lahza. 

instead of, pr. bedel; con. bedel ma. 
instruct, v. a. b'allim, 'allamt, 'allim; bla*'"in, la" *'ant, 

la" "in. 
instruction, n. t'alim p. t'alimet; ter'in. 
instr^iment, n. ali (eli) p. alet c. p. awe'il; 'iddi p. 'ided. 
insult, n. ih^ni. 
insurance, n. sikurta. 

insure, v. a. bsowkir, sowkert, sowkir p.p. msowker. 
insurgent, n. 'asi p. 'usat; te*ir p. te'irin. 
insurrection, n. fitni; towra. 
integrity, n. isti"ami. 
intellect, n. 'a"l. 

intelligence, n. zeka (zika); fahm. 
intelligent, a. zeki (ziki); 'a"il p. *a"ilin ('u"ala). 
intemperance, n. ifrat; shirih. 

intend, v. n. bu"sud, "asadt; binwi, nwait (nweyt). 
intention, n. "asd p. ma"asid; niyi. 
intentional, a. ma"sud. 
intentionally, ad. bil-"asd. 
intercede (for), v. n. bitwassat, twassatt, twassat (ila); 

bitsheflfa, tsheffat, tsheffa (ila). 
intercept, v. a. bihjuz, hajazt, hjuz p.p. mahjuz. 
intercession, n. wesata; shefa'a. 
interest, n. [money) faiyiz; {bias) gharad; {liking) meyl; 

rughbi (righbi); / have an ifiterest in, li salih fi — ; 

interested in, a. mutgharrid (fi). 


interesting, a. mufid; leziz; mlih p. mlah. 

interfere (with), v. n. bitdakhal, tdakhalt, (bitdekhil), 

(tdekhalt) fi. 
interference, n. mudakhili (mdekhili). 
interior, n. dekhil. 
interminable, ad. bila niheyi. 
internal, a. dekhili; juwweni. 
international, a. dowli (dueli). 
interpret, v. a. bterjim, terjemt, terjim. 
interpretation, n. terjemi. 
interpreter, n. terjuman p. tarajmin. 
interval, n. (place) mesefi; {time) middi; in the interval^ 

fi esna. 
interview, n. mwajilia; m"abeli. 
intestate, ad. bila wesiyi. 
intestine, n. misran p. masarin. 
intimate, a. khususi. 
iftto, pr. fi; dekhil fi. 
intolerable, a. ghair (mush) muhtimil. 
intoxicated, a. sekran. 
intoxication, n. sukr. 
intrigue, n. fesad p. mfesid ; desisi p. desa'is; v. n. 

{against) bme"dih, me"diht, me"dih ('ala); bifsud, 

fesadt, fsud ('ala). 
intriguer, n. mufsid; mi*'dah p. ma"adih. 
introduce (to), v. a. b'arrif, 'arraft, 'arrif (fi); b"addim, 

"addamt, "addim (ila); (of things) v. a. bmeshshi, 

meshshait, meshshi. 
intrust (to), v. a. bud'a, wad'at, ud'a (li'ind). 
inundation, n. tufan; hamuli; seyl. 
invent, v. a. bikhtir'i, ikhtar'at, ikhtir'i. 
invention^ n. ikhtira*a. 


inventory^ n. "a'imi p. "awe'im. 

invest [in), v. a. bhutt, hattait, hutt (fi). 

investigate, v. a. bifhas, fahast, fhas p.p. mafhus. 

investigation, n. fahs. 

invisible, a. ghair (mush) menzur. 

invitation, n. 'azimi p. 'aze'im. 

invite^ (to) v. a. be'izum, 'azamt, 'uzum (li) p.p. m'azum. 

involuntary, ad. bidun "asd. 

inwards, ad. ila juwwa. 

iron, n. hadid ; n. (fat iron) mikwi ; v. a. bikwi, kaweyt 

(kweyt), kwi p.p. mikwi. 
ironijig-womayi, n. kuweyi. 
irregular, a. ghair (mush) muntazim. 
irresolute, a. mutereddid ; da'if al-'azm. 
irrigate, v. a. bis"i, sa"ait, s"i. 
irrigation, n. sa*'i. • 

island, n. jeziri p. jeze'ir. 
isolate, v. a. bifruz, farazt, fruz p.p. mafruz. 
issue, n. netiji; hasil; v. n. bidhar, dahart, dhar; bitl'a, 

tl'at, tl'a; V. a. bsaddir, saddert saddir. 
it, pro. hu (hui) ; pro, suff. uh (h). 
Italy, Italia; Italian, a. italiyeni. 
itch, V. n. (3rd per.) biyir'a, re'i. 
itching, n. hakki. 
items, n. p. tafsilat ; mufredat ; item, n. (of an account) 

defa p. def'at; nifdi p. nifed. 
itinerary, n. yowmiyi. 
ivory, n. *aj. 
ivy, n. 'amsha". 



jackal, n. wawi p. wawiyi. 
jacket, n. jaketa; sitri; bantu. 

Jaffa, Yaffa. 
jam, n. tatli; hulu; murabba; jani pot, kibbeyi tatli. 

January, kennun at-teni. 

JapaJi, beled al-Yaban ; Japanese, a. yabani. 
jar, n. {large) jarra p. jrar; khabi (khebi) p. khwebi; 
"idri p. "idr; (small), hu"; dweyk p. dweykat; (for 
table use) sherbi (n'ara). 
jasper, n. yasb. 
jaundice, n. ri"an ; sfaira. 

jaw, n. fekk p. fukuk; jaw bone, hanuk p. hanek. 
jealous, a. hasud. 
jealousy, n. hasad. 

Jericho, ariha. 

Jerusalem, "uds; urushlim. 
jessamine, n. yasmin. 
jest, n. mezh; hazl; v. n. bimzah, mezaht, mzah. 

Jesuit, yesu'i p. yesu'iyi. 

Jesus, yesu'a. 'Isa. 

jet, n. silen ; (of water) fis*'iyi ; nofera. 
jetty, n. rasif. 

JeWt yahiidi p. yahud; Jewish, a. yahudi. 
jewel, n. j6whera (johera) p. jewehir (jawahir). 
jeweller, n. jowherji. 

jewelry, n. p. mjowherat; imitation — , mjowherat kizbi. 
job, n. shughl (shighl) p. ashgh^I. 
jockey, n. khaiyel. 
jocular, a. rawendi. 


join (to), V. a. busul, wasalt, usul (usil) p.p. mowsul, 

(bi); bdumm, dammait, dumm (ila). 
joint, n. mafsal p. mafasil; (of business) mushterek. 
jolt, n. khadda; v. a. (y^ per.) bikhudd, khadd. 
Jordan, nahr al-urdun. 
journal, n. yowmiyi. 
journalist, n. mketib; muresil. 
journey, n. sefer, p. asfar ; khatra. 
jovial, a. farhan ; mesrur. 
joy, n. farah ; surur. 
judge, n. "adi p. "uda; ne'ib (na'ib). 
judgment, n. hukm. 
judicial, a. sher'i. 
jtidicious, a. 'a"il. 
jug, n. bri" p. beri" (eberi"). 
juggler, n. mz'abir. 
juice, n. 'asir; zum. 
juicy, a. mewi. 
July, tammuz. 
jump, n. fezzi ; v. n. bnutt, nattait, nutt ; bi'*muz, '*amazt, 

"umuz; (over) v. bfizz, fezzait, fizz ('ala). 
jtinction, n. mel"a; mujtem'a. 
Jime, hazeran. 
jujiiper, n. sindrus. 
just, a. *adil; just so, ad. bit-temem. 
justice, n. *adl; *adeli. 
justify (oneself), v. bberrir zet-i, berreyt zet-i, berrir 

zet-ak; (confirm) v. a. bsebbit, sebbett, sebbit; / am 

justified in doing so, ha** '*-i 'amil heyk. 
justly, ad. bil-'adl; bil-ha" '*. 


kavasSy n. "uwwas p. "owwasa; uniform of — , bedlit 
al-"uwwas; loose jacket with hanging sleeves^ demir 
p. dwemir; kebbut; jacket without sleeves^ kubran p. 
kweberin; embroidered jacket, demir ma"assab; vest 
with sleeves, mintian p. mnetin ; embroidery, *'asab ; 
loose trousers, shirwal p. sherawil; gaiter, tma" p. 
tma"at; sash, zinnar p. znenir; fez (cap) terbush p. 
trabish; tassel, sherrabi p. sherarib; sword, seyf p. 
siyuf; plated sword, seyf mfaddad; sword-belt, bind 
p. bnud as-seyf; shirt, "amis p. "umsan. 

keel, n. "a'dit al-merkeb. 

keen, a. "aris; kheri" p. khawari'*; 'asif p. 'awasif. 

keep, V. a. bba" "i, ba""eyt, ba""i; bkhalli, khallait, 
(khalleyt) khalli; (observe) behfaz hafazt, hfaz p.p. 
mahfuz; keep accounts, v. bimsik, mesakt hiseb; keep 
on doing, v. n. bdamm, dammait 'amil; keep waiting, 
V. a. b'owwa", 'owwa"t, 'owwe"; / will not keep you 
waiting, ma bitruk-ak tuntur-ni; (one^s word) v, ma 
bikhrum fi"61-i ("owl-i). 

keeper, n. haris p. hurras. 

keepsake^ n. teikar. 

keg, n. barmil zghir. 

kernel, n. "elb ("alb) p. "ulub. 

kettU, n. bri" p. beri". 

key, n. mifteh (miftah) p. mfetih (mefatih); key hole, n. 
tu"ub (ti"ib) al-beb (al-mifteh). 

kickt n. labta; v. a. bilbat, labatt, Ibut; birfus, refest, 

kid, n. jidi p. jdaiya; kid gloves, kfuf jild. 


kidney, n. kelwi p. kleywi. 

kill, V. a. bi"tul, "atalt, u"tul (u"til) p.p. ma"tul; he was 
killed, "itil. 

kiln, n. atun. 

kind, n. jins p. ajnes; now' (no') p. anw'a; shikl p. 
shikel (ashkal); a. sahib m'aruf; latif p. lutafa. 

kindness, n. lutf. 

king, n. melik p. muluk; (cards) rai. 

kingdom, n. m^mleki p. memalik. 

kiss, n. bowsi (bosi) p. bowset; v. a. bbus, bist, bus. 

kit, n. p. howeyij. 

kitchen, n. matbakh p. matabikh; stove, uja" p. uja"at; 
m6"adi; bars of the grate, msabb'a; chimney, med- 
kheni ; (of iron) dekhun ; oven, firn ; cupboard, khizeni ; 
shelf, reff p. rfuf; sink, balu'a; table, towli p. towlet; 
kitchen utensils, n. p. awe'i (nahas) al-matbakh. 

kite, n. taiyara; to fly a — , btaiyir, taiyert, t-aiyir tai- 
yara; n, (bird) shuha. 

kitten, n. bissi ; "atta zghiri. 

knapsack, n. jerabandiyi. 

knave, (cards) n. fershakh. 

knead, v. a. be'ujun, 'ajant, 'ujun. 

kneading-pan, n. m'ajen. 

knee, n. rikbi p. rikeb (rikeb); knee deep, li rikbi; knee- 
cap, sabunit ar-rikbi ; on one's knees, 'ala rikeb (rikeb). 

kneel, v. n. birk'a, rak'at, irk'a. 

knife, n. sikkin p. skekin ; table knife, sikkin at-towli ; 
clasp-knife, mitwi; mus; pen-knife, 'uwaisiyi; knife- 
sharpener, msenn; small knife, sikkin zghir; large 
knife, sikkin kbir. 

knit, V. a. bishtighil, shtaghalt, shtighil bis-sinnara. 

knitting, n. shighl (shughl) sinnara. 


knob^ n. meski ; tiffehat al-beb. 

knocky V. a. bdu"", da'* "ait, du""; knock down or over, 

V. a. birmi, rmait, rmi; bibtah, bataht, btah. 
knot, n. 'i"di p. 'u"ad; knotted, a. m'a"ad. 
knot (to), V. a. be"'ud, Vadt, 'u"ud p.p. rnVud. 
know, V. a. b'arif, 'arift, 'arif p.p. m'aruf; make known, 

V. a. b*arrif, *arraft, 'arrif; become known, {y^ per.) 

biyinti'shir, intashar; bishi'a, sha'a. 
knoiuingly, ad. bil-"asd. 
knowledge, n. 'ilm; m'arifi. 
knuckle, n. 'i"dit (p. 'u"ad) al-usb'a. 

label, n. unwen ('ilwan). 

laboratory, n. mahall al-kimia. 

labour, n. shughl (shighl) ; kedd ; t'ab. 

labourer, n. fe'il (fa'il) p. fa'ali. 

lace, n. mkeshkesh; dantella; gold — , shrit dahab ("asab); 

silver — , shrit fidda. 
lack, n. "illi; v. (3rci per.) bi'uz; ma fih. 
lad, n. sabi p. subiyan. 
ladder, n. sillum p. selelim. 
lading (bill of), n. bolsit shahn. 
ladle, n. marghafi. 
lady, n. sitt p. sittet (sittat). 
lag (behind), v. n. b"assir, "assert, "assir ; /^^^/w^ ^^/«W, 

a. m"as.sir. 
lair, n. maghara. 

lake, n. bhaira (bheyra) p. bhairat. 
lamb, n. kharuf p. khirfen; (small) "ar*'ur p. '*ara"ir. 


laniBy a. 'araj f. 'arja p. 'urj ; to be lame, v. n. be*uruj, 

'arajt; the horse is lame, al-hisan 'amm bey'uruj ; la^ne 

excuse, 'uzr kezib. 
lament, v. bnuh, niht, nuh ('ala) ; bibki, bakit, bki (*ala). 
lamentation, n. menaha. 
latnp, n. "andil p. "anadil; dow; lamp-glass, "izezit 

lance, n. rumh p. rmah; v. a. bibd'a, bad'at, bd'a (bi- 

drub-uh neshter). 
lancet, n. neshter; mibd'a; rishi. 
land, n. ard; (property) riz" p. arza" ; milk, p. amlak; 

on lajid, ad. 'al al-berr; (arable) ard mafluha; (pasture) 

mer'a; (waste) ard mahmuli ; (wooded) ard mshejjer; 

(unwooded) ard sallikh (baiyad); Government land, 

ard miri ; public land, ard meshe'a ; private land, milk 

landing-place, n. mina; (wooden) s*'ala. 
landlord, n. sahib al-beyt. 
landmark, n. takhm p. tkhum. 
landowner, n. sahib al-milk. 
lane, n. zarub p. zw^rib; dakhli. 
language, n. lughgha. 
Ia7iguid, a. da'if p. da'af; 'aiyyen. 
lantern, n. (glass) fanus p. fwenis; (paper) fanar p. fa- 

narat; (magic) fanus sehri. 
/^/, n. hudn (hidn). 
lapse, V. n. (3rd per.) bifut, fat; the time has lapsed, fat 

(mada) al-wa"t. 
lard, n. dehn al-khanzir. 
larder, n. khizeni. 
large, a. kbir c. akbar p. kbar. 
lark, n. "unbra. 

vcx:abulary. 183 

last, a. ekhir (akhir); (preceding) madi; n. ( shoemaker* s) 

sidden (sinden); v. n. (3rd per.) bitowvvil, towwal; 

bidum, dam (dem); at last, ad. akhiran; last price, 

ekhir s'er; last tUne, ekhir marra; last word, ekhir 

latch, n. sa"ata (sa"uta). 
late, a. (defunct) mutwaffi ; (of niosletns) merhum ; to be 

late, V. n. bitla" "as, tla" "ast, tla""as; bit'owwa", 

t'owwa"t, t'owwa" ; ^(?« are /^^ to^, t'owwa"t (tla" "ast) 

ktir; lately, ad. mu'akhiren. 
lath, n. lowh (loh) khasheb p. Iweh. 
lathe, n. makhrata. 
lather, n. raghwit as-sabun. 
latitude, n. 'ard. 
latrines, n. kenif; sheshmi; beyt al-mai; beyt al-fada; 

beyt al-khala. 
latter, a. teni. 
latterly, ad. mu*akhiren. 
lattice, n. sh'ariyi. 
laugh, n. dihki (duhki); v. n. bidhak, dahikt, dahak; 

laugh at, V. bidhak 'ala. 
laughable, a. mudhik. 
laughing-stock, n. maskhara. 
laughter, n. dihk. 

launch, v. a. bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil fil-bahr. 
laundress, n. ghass^li. 
laurel, n. ghar. " 
lava, n. mewad burkaniyi. 
lavender, n. lawanda. 
laWf n. (sacred) sh^riy'a p. sheraiy*a; (civil) nazam; 

law-court, n. mahkemi p. mhakim i(uide court). 


lawful, a. jeyiz. 

lawn, n. khadra; merj p. mruj. 

lawsuit, n. d'awa p. da'awi. 

lawyer, n. wekil da'awi; avokat. 

laxative, n. mis-hil; sherbi. 

lay, V. a. bhutt, hattait, hutt; {a table) bhutt as-siifra; 

(eggs) V. n. (3rd per. f.) bitbid, badet. 
layer, n. taba"a; saf (sef) p. sefet; in layers, saf saf. 
lazy, a. keslen p. kesela. 
lead, n. resas. 
lead, V. a. b"ud, "udt, "ud ; btill, tallait, till ; / led him 

by the hand, "udt-uh bi id-uh ; (precede) v. n. bit- 

"addam, t"addemt, t"addam ('ala) ; v. a. bisba", saba"t, 

sba"; [conduct) to, v. a. bekhud, akhadt, khud (li). 
leader, n. "^yid ("a'id) p. "uwed. 
leading, a. owwel. 
leading-article, n. ma"aH iftitahiyi. 
leaf, n. wara"a p. wara'* (owra*'). 
leak, n. shi" " ; (iyi a roof) delf ; v. n. (3rd per.) (vessel) 

biyizrub, zarab; birowwih, rowwah; (roof) biyidlif, 

lean, n. habr; a. da'if p. da'af; v. n. [on] bittiki, tek- 

kait, tikki ('ala); bistinid, stenedt, stinid ('ala); v. a. 

{against) bisnud, senedt, snud ('ala) ; / leant the ladder 

against the wall, senedt as-sillum 'al al-hait. 
leap, n. fezzi; v. n. [over) bfizz, fezzait, fizz ('ala); bi- 

"muz, "amazt, "umuz ('ala)* 
leap-year, n. sini kebis. 
learn, v. a. and n. b'arif, 'arift, 'arif; bit'allam, t'allamt, 

learned, a. 'alim p. *ulema. 
learning, n. 'ilm; m'arifi. 


lease, n. ijar al-beyt. 

leash, n. habli. 

least (the'), al-azghar ; at least, a "allama. 

leather, n. jild p. jlud; untanned — , jild ftir; Russian 

— , jild miskobi. 
leave, n. izn ; rukhsa; v. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk; bkhalli, 

khallait (khalleyt), khalli; take leave, v. n. bistarkhis, 

starkhast, starkhis; [of servants) bitlub, talabt, tlub 

izn ; on leave, f i (bi) rukhsa ; you had no leave to do 

so, ma ken lak izn t'amil haik. 
leaven, n. khamiri; leavened, a. khamir. 
leavings, n. p. fad la t. 
Lebatton, Libnan; Lebariese, a. libneni. 
lecture, n. khitbi p. khitab. 
ledge, n. hafii p. hafefi. 
ledger, n. defter p. defetir; istez p. asatiz. 
leech, n. 'ala"a. 

lees, n. rasi (rasib) ; (of wine) 'akr ; (coffee) tifl. 
left, n. shimel; to the left, 'ash-shimel; left handed, 

leg, n. ijr p. ijreyn ; (of animals) front-leg, id p. ideyn ; 

back — , ijr. 
legacy f n. wusiyi. 
legal, a. sher'i. 
legation, n. sefara. 
legend, n. kharafi p. kharafat. 
legible, a. mi"ri; wadih. 
leisure, n. fadawi; leisurely, a. mute'enni. 
lemon, n. laimuni (leymuni) hamda p. laimun hamud. 
lemonade, n. leymunada. 

lend, V. a. b^'ir, 'irt, e'lr; bu'Vud, "aradt, u"rud. 
length, n. \u\; at full length, *ala t^l-uh. 


lengthen, v. a. btowwil, towwalt, towwil p.p. mtowwal. 

lengthwise, ad. bi-tul. 

lenient, a. leyyin; sihl; leniently, ad. bi lutf. 

lent, n. sowm (som) al-kbir. 

lentil, n. 'adasi p. 'adas. 

leper, n. abras p. burs; mejdum p. mjeddemin; ahl al- 

less, ad. bin-na"is; a"el; fnore or less, aktar ow a"el; 
he gave 7ne less than you, 'ata-ni a"el min illi 'ata-k 

lessee, n. muste'jir. 

lessen, v. a. bi"ellil, "allelt, "ellil. 

lesson, n. ders p. durus; meteli p. mete'il. 

lessor, n. mu'jir. 

let [alloiv), V. bismah, semaht, smah (li); / will not let 
you in, ma bismah-lak tefut; [of houses) v. a. b'ejjir, 
ejjert, ejjir; / will let you my house, b'ejjir-ak beyt-i; 
let alone, v. bkhalli, khalleyt, khalli wahd-uh ; let go, 
V. a. bdeshshir, deshshert, deshshir; bseyyib, seyyebt, 
seyyib; let in, v. a. bfowwit, fowwatt, fowwit; let out, 
V. a. btall'i, tairat, tall'i; let me [him) pass, khalli-ni 
umru" (khalli-h yumru"). 

letter, n. mektub p. meketib; [of alphabet) harfp. huruf; 
letter-bag, kis meketib. 

lettuce, n. khassi p. khasset c. p. khass. 

level, a. sehili; msewa; jelis f. jelsi; suwi f. swiyi; v. a. 
bsewi, saweyt, sewi p.p. ms^wa. 

lever, n. 'atili; mukhl. 

lexicon, n. "amus p. "awamis. 

liar, n. kezzeb; mnefi". 

liberal, a. kerim p. kiirama; sakhi. 

liberality, n. kerem. 


liberate, v. a. bitlu", tala"t, tlu" ; bharrir, harrert, harrir. 

liberty, n. hurriyi. 

library, n. mektebi p. meketib. 

license, n. rukhsa; izn; (disorder) rezeli. 

lick, V. a. bilhas, lahast, Ihas p.p. melhus; n. lahsi. 

lid, n. ghata p. ughtiyi. 

lie, n. kizbi p. kizbet; barbuki ; v. n. bikzub, kzibt, 

lie down, v. n. bnem (bnam), nimt, nem (nam) ; lying 

down, pres. part, neyim 1. neyimi ; v. n. bitla" "ah, 

tla""aht, tla""ah. 
lieutenant, n. mulezim (mulazim). 
life, n. 'umr; haiya (hiya); by the life of my father, 

bi haiyit bey-i (ab-i). 
lifeless (as if dead), ka in-nuh me'it. 
////, V. a. birfa, refat, irfa; bshil, shilt, shil. 
light, n. dow; nur; a. khafif c. akhaf p. khifaf; [of 

colour) fetih c. aftah ; v. a. bdowwi, dowweyt, dowwi 

p.p. mdowwa; {a fire) v. a. bsha'il, sha'alt, sha'il ; 

lighted, a. she'ili (sha'ali) ; come to light, v. n. (3rd per.) 

biyizhar, zahar; biyinjili, injela; biban, ban. 
lighten, v. a. bkhaffif, khaffeft, khaffif p.p. mkhaffef; [of 

lightning) (3rd per. f.) bitibri", bera"it (kenet tibri"). 
lightning, n. ber" ; flash of — , ber"a. 
like, a. shebih p. ashbah ; ad. mitl ; v. a. bhibb, hab- 

bait (habbeyt), hibb p.p. mahbub. 
likely, a. muhtimil. 
likeness, n. mshebeha. 
lilac, n. zenzelakht. 
lily^ n. zdnba'*a p. zanba". 
limb, n. 'adu p. *uda. 
lime, n. (tree) zezafiin ; (fruit) laimun hulu ; (cement) kils. 


lifnit, n. hadd p. hudud; v. a. bhaddid, haddedt, had- 

did p.p. mahdud; the time is limited, al-wa"t daiyi". 
limp, V. n. bekhud, akhadt min ijr-i. 
line, n. saff p. sfuf; [of writing) satr p. stur; straight 

line, khatt musta"im (dughri); v. a. bbattin, battant, 

battin p.p. mbattan. 
linen, n. kitten; [underclothing) tyeb tahteniyi. 
linifnent, n. duhun. 
lining, n. btani. 
lint, n. neseli; ketit. 

link, n. zaredi p. zarad ; hala"a p. hal"at c. p. hala'*. 
liftseed, n. bezr kitten; — oil, zeyt har; crushed — , bezr 

kitten med"u". 
lintel, n. 'atabi. 

lion, n. seb'a p. sbe'a; asad p. usud. 
lip, n. shift! p. shifef (shffef); upper, lower lip, shifti 

fu"aniyi, tahteniyi. 
liquid, n. se'il p. sew^'il. 

liquidate (debts), v. a. bsaffi, safteyt, saffi p.p. msafta. 
liquorice, n. sus ; root of — 'ur" as-sus ; juice of — rub 

list, n. "a'imi p. "awe'im. 
listen (to), v. bisgha, saghait, sgha (li); listeuing, pres. 

part, saghi. 
literally, ad. harfiyan. 
lithography, n. tab'a-i-hajr. 
litigant, n. sahib d'awa. 
litter, n. takhtirewen ; (for animals) fershi; zibl; in a 

litter, a. m'affashi. 
little (a), n. nitfi ; shwayi; {tirne) burha ; a. zghir c. azghar 

p. zghar; little by little, shwayi, shwayi. 
live, V. n. be'ish, 'isht, 'ish; live on, v. be'ish 'ala; he 


lives fro7n hand to mouth, be'yish min id-uh ila 

livelihood, n. ma'aishi; means of — , asbeb al-ma'ash. 
liver, n. kibid. 
livery, n. bedli makhsusa. 
lizard, n. hardown p. haradin. 
load, n. himl p. hmel (hmuli); v. a. bhammil, hammelt, 

hammil p.p. mhammel; {a ship) bish-han, shahant, 

shahan p.p. mash-hun ; (a gun) bdikk, dekkait, dikk 

p.p. madkuk. 
loaf, n. (bread) rghif p. irghfi ; [sugar) ras ("alib) sikker. 
loan, n. (money) "ird ("irda) p. "urud; (things) aiyeri 

local, a. mahalliyi- 
lock, n. ghal p. ghalet; v. a. bi"ful, "afelt, "iful ("ifil) 

p.p. ma"ful. 
locket, n. kirdan; snoberiyi; medalion. 
locomotive, n. makina. 
locust, n. jeradi p. jerad. 
lodge, V. a. bbeyyit, beyyett, beyyit; v. n. (at) bibat, 

bitt, bat (f i) ; binzel, nzilt, inzel (fi). 
lodger, n. nezil p. nuzela; daif (deyf) p. diyuf. 
lodging, n. menzil; beyt. 
loft, n. 'aaliyi ; taiyara ; hay loft, tebben. 
loiter, V. n. bit*owwa", t'owwa"t, t'owwa". 
long, a. tawil c. atwal p. tuwal ; long ago, min zemen ; 

for a long time, middi tawili. 
longitude, n. tul. 
look, n. nazra ; lamha ; look at, v. bittall'a, ttall'at, ttall'a 

(fi); look for, v. bfettish, fettesht, fettish ('ala);bdow- 

wir, dowwert, dowwir ('ala) ; look after, v. bdir bel-i, 

dirt bcl-i, dir bcl-ak ('ala); look into, v. a. bshuf, shuft, 


shuf; V. bunzur, nazert, nzur (fi); look like, v. n. 

bbeyyin, beyyent, beyyin mitl; look upon as, v, a. 

bihsub, hasabt, hsub — mitl; be'itibir, 'etebert, e'iti- 

bir — mitl; look here! ttall'a hon; look out! u'a; 

dahr-ak; dir bel-ak; look sharp! rowwij ; intibih. 
looking-glass, n. mereyi (maraiyi) p. muri. 
loose, a. rakhu f. rakhwi c. arkha. 
loosen, V. a. bhill, halleyt, hill p.p. mahlul ; birkhi, rkhait, 

lop, V. a. bifr'a, fer'at, fr'a p.p. mafru'a; bsheffi, sheffeyt, 

loquacious, a. ktir al-haki; ktir al-ghalibi. 
lord, n. rebb. 

Lordsprayer, n. as-sala ar-ribbaniyi. 
lose, V. a. bdaiy'i, daiy'at, daiy'i; [money) bikhser, khsirt, 

khsar; {the way) v. ri. btih (btuh), tiht 'an ad-derb; 

(/ lose my temper) v. n. (3rd per.) biyitl'a khiF'-i, tili'a 

loser, n. khasran. 

loss, n. khisara ; sell at a loss, v. a. bbi*a, be'ut bi khisara. 
lot, n. sirbi; jumli; (chance) nasib. 
lots {to cast), V. birmi, rmait, rmi "ur'a. 
lottery, n. "ur'a. 
loud, a. 'aali c. a'ala. 
lousey n. "amli p. "ami. 
love, n. ghuram ; mahabbi ; v. a. bhibb, habbeyt, hibb 

p.p. mahbub; fall in love with, v. a. be'ashi", 'ashi"t; 

he is in love with her, hui mughram fi-ha; 'ashi"-ha. 
loved, a. habib; lover, n. muhibb; habib. 
low, a. wati c. owta; deni (dun) c. adna. 
lower, a. tahteni ; v. a. bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil ; bdelli, 

dellait (delleyt), delli ; loiver the price, nezzil as-'ser. 


loyal, a. tai'ya. 

loyalty, n. ta'a. 

lozenge, n. habbi p. hbub. 

luck, n. bakht; tof i" ; hazz; bad luck, nahs. 

lucky, a. mwaffa" ; hazz-uh kbir. 

lucrative, a. mufid; ma'ash-uh mlih. 

ludicrous, a. mudhik. 

luggage, n. 'afsh; howeyij ; hmuli. 

lukewarm, a. fetir f. fetri. 

lump, n. kebshul p. kbeshil. 

lunar, a. "ameriyi. 

lunatic, a. mejnun; {cracked) mef'u'a; {light-headed') 

luncheon, n. ftur. 
lungs, n. riyi. 

luscious, a. hulu f. hilwi c. ahla. 
lustre, n. lima'an. 
luxurious, a. mutrafih. 
luxury, n. rifeh. 
/yr^, n. *ud p. 'awed. 


mace, n. "ishr jowz at-tib; {club) 'asa p. 'usi. 

machine, n. makina; eli (ali) p. elet (al^t) c. p. awe'il; 

sewing-machine, elit khiyata. 
mad, a. mejnun [vide lunatic), 
madness, n. jenun. 

madonna, n. sitt-na meriam (al-*adra). 
magazine, n. ncshera (nfshra). 
maggot, n. dudi p. dud. 


magic J n. sehr; a. sehri. 

magician, n. sehir; sahhar. 

magistrate, n. "adi p. "uda; na'ib (ne'ib). 

magnet, n. maghnatis. 

magnetise, v. a. (3rd per.) bimaghnit, maghnat, 

magnificence, n. jeleli; magnificent, a. jelil. 

magpie, n. \^\ ("a") p. "i"an. 

Mahomet, Muhammed; seyyid-na (our lord) Muhammed 
resul-ullah {the prophet of God) ; Mahotnetan, n. mus- 
lim p. musulmin (islam), Mahometanism, islam. 

maid, n. bint p. benet (benat) ; — servant, san'i p. sun- 
n'a; [black) jeriyi p. jeweri. 

7naiden-hair (fern), n. kizbrit al-bir. 

mail, n. dir'a; (post) bosta. 

mainspring, n. {of a watch), zunberak as-se*a. 

maintaiyi [support), v. a. b'ul, *ilt; v. b"um, "umt (bi) ; / 
cannot maintain my family, ma bi"dir b"um bi 'aiyilt-i. 

maintenance, n. "ut; *'iyam bin-nefa*'a. 

maize, n. dara (dura). 

majestic, a. jelil ; majesty, n. jeleli. His [Her) Majesty, 
jelelt-uh, jelelt-ha. 

major, n. bin bashi ; a. [of age) mfdrik ; beligh. 

majority, n. sinn al-bulugh; the majority, al-akteriyi. 

make, v.' a. b*amil, *amilt, 'amul ('amil) p.p. m'amul; 
— the best of, v. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtimil; — 
light of, V. bistakhiflf, stakhaffait, stikhifif (fi); — mo- 
7tey, V. n. birbah, rbiht, irbah; — ready, v. a. bhad- 
dir, haddert, haddir; bwaddib, waddabt, waddib p.p. 
mwaddab; — a speech, v. n. bukhtub, khatabt, 
khtub ; — sure, v. a. b'ekkid, akkedt, ekkid p.p. m'ek- 
ked ; — way [for), v. bwass'a, wass'at, wass'i (li) ; — 
one's way, v. n. binjah, nejaht, injeh fi dunia. 


malaria^ n. malaria. 

male, n. zekr p. zukur. 

malice, n. hi"d. 

malicious, a. ha"ud. 

mallet J n. hatura; mda""a. 

Malta, malta; Maltese, a. malti. 

man, n. rijjel p. rjel. 

manage, v. a. bdebbir, debbert, debbir; bsewi, saweyt. 

management, n. idara. 
manager, n. mudir p. mudera. 
mane, n. m'arafiyi. 
mange, n. jarab; mangy, a. jarben. 
manger, n. ma'alaf. 

mangle, v. a. (3rd per.) biyimezzi", mezza". 
manhood, n. rujuliyi. 
mankifid, n. al-beshr. 
manly, a. rijjel. 
manna, n. menn. 

manner, n. shikl p. shikel; tari"a. 
manners, n. p. adab ; n. husn suluk. 
manoeuvre, n. tedrib p. tedribat; (military) mnovverat 

mantle, n. meshlah p. meshelih; 'aba p. 'ibi. 
manufactory, n. m'amel p. ma'amel; fabrika. 
manufacture, n. *amel; shughl (shighl). 
manufacturer, n. sahib m'amel; kirkhanji. 
manure, n. zibl. 
manuscript, n. khatt yed. 
many, a. ktir p. ktar ; many times, marrat ktiri ; mafiy 

coloured, mlowwan. 
map, n. kharta. 



marble, n. rkham; mermer. 

March, adar; [military) n. meshiyi. 

mare, n. faras p. kheyl. 

margin, n. hashiyi. 

marigold, n. bakhur meriam. 

marine, a. bahri. 

mark, n. 'alemi p. *alemat; marka; v. a. b'allim, 'allamt, 

'allim p.p. m'allam ; (commercial) bmerrik, merrakt, mer- 

rik p.p. mmarrak; up to the mark, leyi" lish-shighl; 

titl'a bi id-uh al-maslaha; near the mark, a. musib; 

wide of the mark, a. mukhti. 
market, n. su" p. aswa" (swa"). 
Maronite, maruni p. muwarni ; Maronite church, al-kenisit 

marriage, n. jewez (zewej); jizi (zija) p. jizet (zijet); 

ceremony of — , iklil ; — service, salat al-iklil. 
marriageable, fi sinn aj-jewez. 
marrow, n. nkh'a ; marrow-bone, n. 'admi p. 'adam 

('adm) ; vegetable-marrow, n. kusa. 
marry, v. n. bitjowwaz, tjowwazt, tjowwaz p.p. mjow- 

waz; give in marriage, v. a. bjowwiz, jowwazt, jow- 

wiz; (perform the ceremony) v. a. bkellil, kellelt, 

marsh, n. bata". 
martingale, n. kurfsan. 
martyr, n. shehid p. shuheda. 
martyrdom, n. shehedi. 
marvellous, a. gharib; 'ajib. 
masculine, a. mzekker. 

mash, V. a. bihlus, halest, hlis p.p. mahlus; bihrus, ba- 
rest, hris p.p. mahrus. 
mask, n. wijh 'aiyeri; maskhara p. msekhir. 


masout n. m'emeri p. m'ameriyi. 

masonry, n. hejara. 

mass, n. [things) kumi (komi) p. kuam; [people) jemhur 

p. jemahir. 
massacre, n. mezbaha (medbaha). 
mast, n. sari p. sawari. 
master, n. [superior) ma'allim ; (of a trade) usta p. us- 

tawat; v. bitghallib, tghallabt, tghallib ('ala). 
masterpiece, n. da"it shighl ; shighl al-ma'allim. 
mastic, n. 'ara*'. 
mat, n. hasiri p. husr. 
match, n. [lucifer) shahaitta p. shahat; kebrit; wal'aj 

[pair) jowz (joz) p. ajwez; v. (3rd per.) biwefi'*, wafa" 

material, n. "imash ("imesh); [cloth) jukh; [building) V^- 

resta; lawezim al-bina. 
mathematician, n. riyadi. 
mathematics, n. p. ar-riyadiyet. 
matter, n. maslaha p. masalih; mes'eli; "adiyi; what is 

the matter, shu al-mes'eli; what is the matter with 

you, shu bek; ma lak; there is nothing the matter, 

ma fi shi; it does not matter, ma biseyl. 
mattress, n. fresh p. firsh. 
mature, a. reshid (rashid). 
mausoleum, n. ma"am p. ma"amat. 
May^ iyar; nuwar. 
me, pro. suff, i (ni). 
meadow, n. merj p. mruj. 
meal, n. [ground grain) tahin ; [repast) akl. 
mean, a. dun; [stingy) bakhil p. bukhala; khasis; [average) 

m'addal ; v. n. (3rd per.) y*ani ; it meatis, m'ana-uh. 
meaning, n. m'ana. 


means J n. imken (imkan); "udra; by mea?is of, hi w^stSit. 
meanwhile (in the), fi hal-fursa; fil-wa"t zet-uh. 
measles, n. hasbi ; himeri. 
measure, n. *'iyes p. "iyeset; tape — , mitr p. amtar; 

(of capacity) keyl; (weight) wazn; (proceeding) tedbir 

p. tedebir; tari"a ;. full measure, 2i. kemil; short — , 

na"is; above — , ad. fow" al-'adi; what does it measure ? 

shu "iyes-uh; v. a. bi"is, "ist, "is; bekhud, akhadt, 

khud al-"iyes; (by weight) buzin, wezent, uzin p.p. 

mowzun; (by capacity) bkeyyil, keyyelt, keyyil p.p. 

meat, n. lahm. 
Mecca, mekki. 

medal, n. nish^n p. nieshin; medalion. 
meddle (i?i), v. n. bitdakhal (bitdekhal), tdakhalt (tdek- 

halt) m'a; bitahashshir, tahashshart, tahashshir (fi). 
meddler, n. hishri; fuduli. 
medicine, n. dawa p. edwiyi. 
mediocrity, n. hali mutwassta. 
meditate, v. bit'ammel, t'ammelt, t'ammel (fi). 
tneditation, n. ta'ammul. 
Mediterranean sea, al-bahr al-mutwassit. 
medlar, n. z*arura p. z'arur. 
meek, a. wadiy'a. 
meet, v. a. bla"i, la"ait, la"i; {by chajice) v. a. bisduf, 

sadaft; where shall we meet? weyn minitla"a. 
meeting, n. ijtima*a; mula"a; vteeting place, mahall 

ijtima'a; (rivers) mer'a. 
melancholy, n. sweda; sowdewi; msodan. 
mellow, a. mistwi. 
melodious, a. mutribi. 
melody, n. lahn p. alhan. 


melon, n. battikh asfar, {water-melon) battikh akhdar; 

[sweet scented) shemmem; "aun. 
melty V. n. (3rd per.) bidub, dab; v. a. bdowwib, dow- 

wabt, dowwib p.p. mdowwab. 
member, n. 'adu ; honorary — , 'adu ikrami. 
memorandum, n. mzekkeri; ta"rir. 
memory, n. zakra; my memory, zakirt-i; in memory of, 

tezkar li. 
menace, n. tahdid ; wa'id; v. a. bitaheddad, taheddedt, 

tahedded ; v. bitwa'ad, twa'adt, twa'ad (ila). 
mend, v. a. bsallih, sallaht, sallih p.p. msallah; to be 

mended, (3rd per.) biyitsallah, tsallah; [of pens) v. a. 

bibri, berait, bri p.p. mibri. 
mention [to), v. a. bizkur, zakert, zkur p.p. mezkur (li); 

/ mentiofied it to him, zakert-illuh yeh. 
merchandise, n. p. bda'a (badaiy'i). 
merchant, n. tejir p. tujjar. 
merciful, a. rahum ; shefu". 

merciless, a. mush (mau) rahum; ad. bila rahmi. 
mercury, n. zaiba". 
mercy, n. rahmi ; shefa"a. 
merely, ad. bes; fa"at. 

merit, n. istih"a"; v. a. bistaha" ", staha""eyt, stihi"". 
merry, a. farhan. 
mess, n. 'aj"a; lakhbata; [dirt) wasakh; [fig.) irtibek; 

l^beki; in a mess, a. m*aju'*; [fig>) murtibik. 
message, n. khaber; to send a — , bib'at, ba'att li — 

messenger^ n. sd'i (sa'i); mirsel. 
metal, n. m'aden p. ma'aden. 
metaphor, n. mejaz. * 

meteor, n. shehab p. shiihub. 


method, n. tari"a. 
metre {verse), n. beyt p. abiyet. 
metropolitan, n. mitran p. matarni. 

'ntew, V. n. (3rd per.) binowwi, nowwa ; mewing, a. nowwi. 
microscope, n. mikroskob. 
mid-day, n. dohr. 

middle, n. wast; in the middle of, pr. fi wast; middle- 
man, dellel; simsar; middle course, tari" mutwassit; 

middle-aged, a. mutwassit fis-sinn. 
mid-night, n. nuss leyl. 
mid-way, n. nuss ad-derb. 
midwife, n. deyi. 

migrate, v. n. (riomads) birhal, rahalt, rhal. 
migration, n. mhajera ; {nomads) rahil. 
mild, a. latif p. liitafa; leyyin. 
mildeiu, n. 'afn ('ufuni). 
mile, n. mil p. amyal. 
military, a. 'askeri. 
milk, n. halib; fresh — , halib taza; boiled — , halib 

mighli; hot — , halib sukhn; cold — , halib berid; 

sotir — , lebn. 
viill, n. tahun p. twahin; hand — , jarushi p. jwerish; ;;z27/- 

stone, hajr (p. hijjar) tahun; mill-wheel, ferash at-tahun. 
miller, n. tahhan. 
millet, (vide maize). 

7nillion, n. meliyun p. mleyin ; tnillionaire, sahib meliyun. 
mimic, v. a. bi'*ellid, 'elledt, "ellid p.p. m*'elled. 
minaret, n. medni p. mawadin. 
mince, v. a. bifrum, faramt, frum p.p. mafrum. 
mind, n. 'a"l; v. [pay attention to) bintibih, intebeht, 

intibih (ila); [care about) binhamm, inhammait (li); 

[interest) v. a. (3rd per.) bihimm, hamm ; / dont mitid. 


ma bihimm-ni ; make tip ones mind, v. n. be'itimid, 

'etamedt ('ala); mind oyie's busijiess, v. bdir, dirt bel-i 

'ala shighl-i ; speak one's mind, v. behki, hakeyt fikr-i ; 

7tei'er mind, ma biseyl, la bes. 
mine, n. m*aden p. ma'aden; v. a. bilghum, laghamt, 

Ighum p.p. melghum. 
miner, n. m'adenji. 
mineral, a. aiid n. m'adeni p. ma'aden; — water, mai 

minister, n. wezir, p. wuzera ; prime — , sadr'azam ; 

(foreign affairs), nazir (nezir) al-kharijiyi; (interior), 

— ad-dakhliyi; (finance), — al-meliyi; (justice), — al- 
'adliyi; {public iustruction), — al-ma'arif; (marine), — 
al-bahriyi ; (war), — al-harbiyi ; (public works), — 
an-nefa; (pious foundations), — al-ow"af; (commerce), 

— at-tijara; (police), — az-zabta. 
minor, n. "asir p. "ussar. 

mijit, n. (platit) n*an'a; {for coining) darb khani; sikki. 

minute, n. da"i"a p. da'*ayi'\ 

miracle, n. 'ajibi p. 'ajeyib. 

mirror, n. mereyi (maraiyi) p. muri. 

mischief, n. darar ; aziyi. 

misconduct, n. su siri; siri rediyi. 

misdeed, n. zenb p. znub. 

miser, n. bakhil n. bukhala; shahih. 

miserable, a. meskin ; (bad) shi"i. 

misery, n. sha"ewi; fu*'r. 

misfortune, n. msibi p. msaiyib. 

miss, V. a. bifut, fitt, fut; bfowwit, fowwatt, fowwit; 
/ missed the opportunity, fatft-ni al-fursa; dofit miss 
the opportunity, la tfowwit al-fursa; (aim) v. n. bukhti, 
kha^ait, khti. 


mission, n. sefara; {religious) risali; irsaliyi; ba'Ati 

missionary, n. "asis p. "usus; mursel p. murselin. 
mist, n. ghtaita. 
mistake, n. ghalta p. ghaltat c. p. ghalat; khata; 7nake 

a mistake, v. n. bighlat (bughlat), ghlutt (ghlitt), 

mistress, n. ma'allimi; my mistress, ma'allimt-i. 
misunderstanditig, n. su fahm. 

mitigate, v. a. bkhaffif, khaffeft, khaffif p.p. mkhaffef. 
mitre, n. tej p. tijen. 
mix, V. a. bukhlut, khalatt, khlut p.p. makhlut ; {drugs) 

bimzij, mazajt, mzuj p.p. memzuj. 
mixed, a. memzuj ; makhlut. 
mixture, n. mezij. 

moan {moaning), n. 'anin ; v. n. bi'in, 'anait ('aneyt), *in. 
moat, n. khenda" p. khanadi" (khnedi"). 
mob {the), al-owbash (obash). 
mockery, n. dihki (duhki). 

model, n. mesel (metel) p. emsel; {fig^) *'idwi. 
moderate, a. mu'tfdil. 
moderation, n. 'itidel. 
modern, a. jdid p. jidad. 
modest, a. mahshum; modesty, n. hfshmi. 
fnoist, a. rutib. 

moisten, v. a. brattib, rattabt, rattib p.p. mrattab. 
moisture, n. rtubi. 
mole, n. khuld p. menajiz. 
molest, V. a. bu'zi (bi'ii), azeyt (azait), zi. 
moment, n. lahza. 

monarch, n. melik p. muluk; sultan. 
monastery, n. deyr p. diyura. 


Mondayj nahar (yowm) al-itneyn. 

moyiey^ n. mesari (misriyat); m'ameli; — market, bursa; 

— changer, serraf p. saiyerif. 
mongrel, n. bandu". 
monk, n. rahib p. ruhben. 
monkey, n. s'aden p. sa'adin. 

monopolise, v. a. bihsur, hasert, hsur p.p. mahsur. 
monopoly, n. hasr; al-yed al-wahdi. 
monster, n. wahsh p. wuhush. 

Montenegro, jebel as wad ; Montenegrin, min jebel aswad. 
month, n. shehr p. shuhur (ish-hur); monthly, a. shehri. 
monument, n. asar p. asar (eter p. atar). 
jHoon, n. "amer; new — , hilel; — light, dow al-"amer; 

full — , bedr. 
moor, V. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut p.p. marbut. 
moorings, n. marbat. 
morals, n. p. adeb. 

more, a. and ad. aktar; moreover, ad. aidan. 
morning, n. bukra; subh; in the moriiing, 'a bukra; 

this morning, al-yowm 'a biikra. 
Morocco, marakesh; Moor, mughrabi; Moorish, a. ma- 

morsel, n. sha"fi. 
mortal, a. me'it; {deadly) "attel. 
mortar, n. [of copper) hewin (hawin); (stone) jurn. 
mortgage, n. rahn ; v. a. birhun, rahant, rhun p.p. merhun. 
mortgagee, n. murt^hin. 
mortgagor, n. rahin. 
mosaic, n. tenzil. 

mosque, rt. j^m*i p. jaw^m'i; mesjid p. mes^jid. 
mosquito, n. berghashi p. berghash ; nemusi p. nemus; 

mosquito-net, nemusiyi. 


moss, n. khazz. 

most, a. and ad. al-aktar; aktar min al-kull (kill); for 

the most part, al-aghlab. 
moth, n. 'itti p. 'itt; to be motheate?i, v. n. (3rd per.) 

bi'attit, 'attet p.p. m'attit. 
mother, n. imm p. immet; mother-in-law, 'ammi. 
^notion, n. hareki; in motion, a. mutaharrik; meshi. 
motive, n. sebeb p. asb^b; gharad. 
motto, n. kelimi; 'ibara. 

mould, n. tirab; (shape) "elib ("alib) p. "awalib. 
mouldy, a. m'affin ; to go mouldy, v. n. (3rd per.) bi*affin, 

fHoult, V. a. (3rd per.) biyishlah, shalah; biyibdal, bedel ; 

the bird moults, at-tayr biyishlah rish-uh. 
mound, n. telli p. tlel. 
mount, V. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala); (an animal)] v. a. 

birkeb, rkibt, irkeb. 
mountain, n. jebel, p. jib^l; range of — , silslit jibel. 
mounted, a. rekib. 
mourn (for), v. behzan, hzint, hzan ('ala) ; bhidd, had- 

dait, hidd ('ala) ; wear mourning, v. bilbus, Ibist, ilbus 

mourniftg, n. hided; hizn; ifi — , l^bis hided. 
motise, n. fara p. firan c. p. far. 
mouse-trap, n. masiyadit far. 
moustache, n. sherib p. shwerib. 
mouth, n. timm (tumm) p. itman; fimm (fumm) p. af- 

weh; buz. 
mouthful, n. lu"mi. 
mouthpiece, n. biz. 
move, V. a. (put in motion) bharrik, harrakt, harrik; 

bmeshshi, meshshait, meshshi; (transport) bin"ul, na- 


"alt, n"ul; move away, v. a. bshil, shilt, shil; v. n. 

bitaharrak, taharrakt, taharrak; move about, bdur, 

durt, dur. 
mow, V. a. bhishsh, hashshait, hishsh p.p. mahshush ; 

bjizz, jezzeyt, jizz p.p. mejzuz. 
Mr, Mrs, al-khowaja; as-sitt. 
much, a. a?id ad. ktir c. aktar p. ktar. 
7nud, n. wahl. 

muddle, n. 'aj"a; {Jig.) irtebek {vide mess), 
muddy, a. muhil; wehil. 
mug, n. kuz p. akwaz. 
mulberry, n. tuti p. tut; (white) tut hezez; {black) tut 

sh^mi; — tree, tuti. 
mule, n. baghl p. bghal; she-mule, baghli; kicking mule, 

baghl shmus. 
muleteer, {mule-driver) n. mkeri p. mkeriyi ; "atfrji. 
multiply, V. a. {a iiumber by another), bidrub, darabt, 

drub p.p. madrub (fi); multiply 3 by 4., drub tleti fi 

multiplication, n. darb. 
mumps, n. abu ka*ib (k'ab). 
municipality t n. belediyi ; President of — , raiyis al- 

murder, v. a. bi"tul, "atalt, u"tul (u"t{l) p.p. ma"tul; 

a murdered man, "atil. 
murderer, n. **6til ("atil) p. "utela. 
murmur, n. ta**um"um; v. n. bitdemmir, tdemmert. 
muscle, n. 'adali p. 'adalet. 
museum, n. d^r at-tuhaf. 
mushroom, n. futr; khibz al-"a*\ 
music, n. musika; {vocal) ghina; {church) tertil ; psaltika ; 

musician, musiki ; {of a band), nubdtji. 


muskj n. misk. 

muslin, n. shesh ; muslina. 

must, I must go {come), ana lezim ruh (iji). 

mustard, n. khardal. 

musty, a. m'affin. 

mute, (to be) v. n. biskut, sakatt, skut (W<2^^ silent); a. 

mutineer, n. 'asi p. 'usat. 
mutiny, n. 'isiyan. 
mutton, n. lahm dani. 
mutual, a. mutbedil; mushterek. 
muzzle [of a guft), buz al-barudi. 
my, pro. stiff, i (ni). 
myrrh, n. murr. 
myrtle, n. rihan; as; myrtle berries, habb al-as (han- 

myself, pro. zet-i. 
fnysterious, (mystic) a. sirri; 'ajib. 
mystery, (mysticism) n. sirr p. asrar. 


nail, n. mismar p. mesemir; (of the finger) difr (zifr) 
p. adfar (azfar). 

naked, a. 'ariyen ; zlait ; stark naked, bi zult. 

7iame, n. ism p. asemi (esami) ; v. a. (to give a name to) 
bsemmi, sammait, semmi p.p. msemma; (to mention) 
bizkur, zakert, zkur; i7i the name of, bi ism. 

namely, ad. y'ani; ay. 

namesake^ n. smi. 


napy n. {of cloth) zughbera; (dose) nown (nom) ghatta; 

to take a 7iap, v. n. bnam (bnem), ninit, nam (nem) 

napkin, n. futa p. fuat. 
narcissus y n. narjis. 
narcotic y n. mkhadder; mnowwim. 
narrow, a. daiyi" c. adya" ; narrow-minded, 'a"l-uh 

daiyi" ("asir). 
nasty, a. wisikh ; mush (mau) murdi ; mush mlih. 
nation, n. ummi p. umam. 
national, a. watani. 
nationality, n. jinsiyi; tab'iyi; his — , jinsiyit-uh; tab- 

native, a. watani; native-land, n. watn. 
nativity [feast of the), 'eid al-milad. 
natural [naturally), a. and ad. tabt'i. 
jiaturalise, v. a. bjennis, jennest, jennis; to be naturalised, 

bitjennas, tjennast, tjennas. 
naturalisation, n. tejnis. 
nature, n. tabi'a. 
nausea, n. "irf; to be nauseated [with), v. n. be*'raf, 

"irift (min). 
naval y a. bahri. 
nave, n. sahn. 
navel, n. surra. 

navigation, n. sefer (seyr) al-bahr. 
navy, n. 'amara al-bahriyi. 
Nazareth, an-nasra. 
near, a. **arib p. "urab; pr. hadd; "arib; jenb; "irb: 

*'idd^m; nearly, ad. "arib ; ta'Viban. 
neat, a. ndif p. ndaf. 
necessary, a. lezim ; daruri ; // is — , lezim ; it is not — , 


mush (mau) lezim; n. lezim p. lawezim; necessarily j 

ad. daruri. 
necessity y n. luzum; darura; there is 710 — , ma fi luzum. 
neck, n. ra"bi; necktie, n. rabtit ra"bi ("amtit ra"bi). 
necklace, n. 'a"id p. 'u"udi. 
need, n. ihtiyej ; v. a. b*uz, 'izt; bihtej, ihtajt. 
needle, n. ibri; knitting — , sinnara; eye of a yieedle, 

ti"ib al-ibri; needle-work, shighl al-ibri. 
negation, n. inkar. 

neglect, v. a. behmil, hamelt, hmil p.p. mahmul. 
negligence, n. ihmel. 
negligent, a. mutahemil. 
negro, n. 'abd p. 'abid ; zenji p. znuj. 
7ieigh [neighing), n. sahil; v. n. (3rci per.) biyus-hul, sahal. 
neighbour, n. jar p. jiran. 
fieighbourhood, n. jiri; my — , jirt-i. 
neither — 7ior, con. la wa la. 
nephew, n. ibn akh (khey) ; ibn ukht (ikht). 
nerve, n. 'asab p. *asab. 
nervous, a. basses. 
nest, n. 'ishsh p. 'ushush ('ashesh) ; nest-egg, moda'a 

net, n. shebeki p. shbek. 
nettle, n. "urrais. 

neuter, a. la mzekker wa la mu'annas. 
neutral, a. mutahaiyid. 
7ieiitrality, n. hiyyedi. 
never, ad. abaden; mnowb (mnob); nevertheless, m'a 

new, a. jdid p. jidad; new fashion, zey jdid; modajdidi. 
Newfoundland, ard aj-jdidi. 
news, n. khaber p. (akhber); good news, n. beshara. 


newspaper J n. jurnel p. jurnelet; gazetta; jeridi. 

nexty a. teni; "admi. 

Niagra [falls of)y shelelet niagra. 

nibj n. rishi p. riesh. 

nibbUy V. a. (3rd per.) biyi'Vut, "arat. 

nicey a. zarif p. zuraf; mlih p. mlah; kwaiyis. 

nichey n. ta'*a. 

nicknamey n. tilbi"a ; libi". 

niecey n. bint akh (khey); bint ukht (ikht). 

nighty n. leyl p. liyeli; by nighty fil-leyl; all nighty kill 

al-leyl ; tul al-leyl ; the thousand and one nights y alf 

leyli u leyli. 
nightgowny n. tyeb an-nowm. 
nightingaley n. bulbul p. blebil. 
nightmarey n. kabus (kebus). 
NiUy nahr an-nil. 
ninibley a. neshit (nishit); herik. 
nippUy n. hilmi p. hilem. 
nitre y n. natrun. 
noy ad. la; nobody (?io-one) hada; I saw nobody y ma shuft 

hada; no where y wila bi matrah. 
noblcy a. sherif. 
nobility y n. sheref. 
nody n. haniyi. 
noise y n. dajji (doji); 'ayta; make a noise y b'amil, 'amilt, 

'amul dajji; bdowwij, dowwajt, dowwij. 
noisyy a. bulit. 

nomady n. nuri p. nawar; bedewi p. bedu ; rahil p. ruhhul. 
nominally^ ad. bil-ism. 
nonsense, n. hels ; kelem ferigh ; it is nonsense, bila m'Sna ; 

to talk — , V. n. bihlus, halest, hlis. 
noony n. ad-dohr. 


noose, n. 'i"di p. 'u"ad; running noose, 'i"di shuta. 

normal, a. tabi'i. 

north, n. shimel (shimal); northern, a. shimeli. 

Norway, noruj ; Norwegian, a. noruji. 

nose, n. minkhar, inf. 

nosebag [of a horse), n. kis sh'ir; kis tibn. 

nostril, n. khaishum p. khieshim. 

not, ad. ma ; la ; not at all, abaden ; not one, ma hada ; 
not qnite, lissa; b'ad ma. 

fiotable, a. mesh-hur; notables, n. p. 'aiyen. 

note, n. tezkeri p. tei^kir; [observation] mulahaza; (of 
music) nota p. notat; notes of a piano, sillum; note 
book, defter mfekkera; v. a. b"eyyid, "eyyedt, "eyyid 
p.p. m"eyyed. 

nothing, n. shey (shi); there is nothing, ma fi shi; it will 
come to nothing, ma biyistif id shi ; biruh di'an ; it is 
good for nothing, ma biyfnfa shi ; ma biyfswa shi ; 
better than nothing, ahsan min belesh. 

notice, n. e*alen; khaber; v. a. [observe) blahaz, lahazt, 
lahaz ; give notice [about) ; v. a. bkhabbir, khabbert, 
khabbir ('an); give notice [to), v. n. bnebbih, nebbeht, 
nebbih ('ala); it is worth noticing, biyistahi'*" az-zikr; 
short notice, middi *'asiri. 

notoriety, n. shuhra; notorious, a. mesh-hur. 

noun, n. ism p. isma (esami or asemi). 

nourish, v. a. bit'am, ta'amt, ta'am p.p. mta'ama. 

nourishment, n. t'am. 

novelty, n. shey jdidi. 

November, teshrin at-teni. 

novice, n. [religious) mibtidi ; a. ghurr (ghirr) ; ghashun. 

now, ad. halla"; issa; now and then, ahiyenen; now or 
never, wa ilia fa la; nowadays, fi hal-iyem. 



nudge, n. defshi; v. a. bidfush, defesht, dfush. 

yiuisance^ n. shey (shi) miiz'ij, mut'ib. 

null, a. batil (battal) ; 7iull and voidy la y'umel fih. 

nujnby a. khadran. 

number, n. 'aded p. 'aded; v. a. bnemmir, nammert, 
nemmir p.p. mnammer. 

numbered, ad. taht numero. 

numberless, ad. bila 'aded; bila numra. 

numeral, n. ra"m p. ar"am. 

numerous, a. ktir p. ktar; 'aded-uh ktir. 

nun, n. rahbi p. rabbet. 

nurse, n. mrabbiyi; wet-nurse, murda'a. 

nut, n. (hazel) bind"a p. bindu"; — tree, bind"a; (pi- 
stachio) fistu"; (cocoa) narjil; jozit hind p. joz hind. 

nutmeg, n. jowzit tib p. jowz tib ; nutmeg grater, ma- 

nutshell, n. "ishri p. "ishr. 


oak, n. sindiani p. sindian; balluta p. ballut. 

oar, n. mi"daf p. ma"adif. 

oasis, n. waha p. wahat. 

oath, n. yemin p. aiyemin ; hulfan ; to take an oath, 

V. n. bihluf, halaft, hluf ; to administer an oath to, v. a. 

bhallif, halleft, halHf. 
oats, n. shuf^n. 
obedience, n. ta'a. 
obedient, a. tai'y^ p. tai'yin. 
obey, V. a. and n. bti'a, te'at, ti*a. 



object^ n. "asd; gharad; ghaiyi; {anything seen) shey 

(shi); V. n. [to) be'itirid, 'itaradt, e'itirid ('ala). 
objectiony n. 'itirad; there is no — , ma fi men'i (man'i). 
obligation, n. memnuniyi ; to be under an — to, v. bkun, 

kint memnun-uh (luh) or taht memnuniyit-uh. 
oblige, V. a. (to) bijbur, jebert, jbur ('ala); [put anyone 

under an obligation) bij'al, ja'alt, ja'al-uh memnun; 

bsaiyir, saiyert-uh memnun; obliged [grateful) a. mem- 
nun; mutshekkir. 
oblong, a. mustatil. 
obscene, a. sefih; ri'zil (razil) p. arzal; obscene language, 

kelem sefih (ri'zil). 
observation, n. mulahaza. 
observe, v. a blahaz, lahazt, lahaz; [keep) behfaz, hafazt, 

obstacle, n. men'i (man'i) p. mwen'i. 
obstinate, a. 'anid ; ras-uh yebis. 
obstruct, V. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a. 
obtain, v. a. bhassil, hassalt, hassil; v. bihsul, hasalt 

obtainable, a. mowjud. 

obviate (a difficulty), v. a. bzil, zilt, zil al-men'i. 
obvious, a. wadih. 
occasion, n. fursa; to avail oneself of, v. n. bintihiz, in- 

tahazt, intfhiz al-fursa. 
occasionally , ad. ahiyenen. 
Occident, n. al-gharb. 
occupayit, n. sekin p. sukken. 
occupation, n. shighl (shughl), {niilit.) ihtilel; ar^ny of — , 

jeysh al-ihtilel. 
occupy, V. a. bshaghhhil, shaghghalt, shaglighil; to be 

occupied [with), v. n. bishtighil, shtaghalt, shtighil (fi); 


to occupy oneself {with) v. n. bitsella, tselleyt, tsella 
(f i) ; [milit.) V. a. {a place) bhill, hallait, hill (f i). 

occur, V. n. (3rd per.) bisir (f. bitsir), sar (f. saret) ; biyi"a 
(f. biti'*a), wa"a (f. wa"at) ; it occurs to my mind, 
biyiji, ija (biyukhtur, khatir) fi bel-i. 

occurrence, n. hadisi p. hawadis. 

ocean the, n. al-muhit. 

o'clock {what o'clock is it?), *'add esh as-s6'a; shu as-s^'a 
(vide grammar, time). 

October, teshrin al-owwel. 

odd, a. gharib; *ajib; (not even) ferd. 

odour, n. riha p. rweyih. 

off (far), a. be'id. 

offence, n. (insult) iheni; (crime) zenb; (anger) ghaiz. 

offeyid, V. a. bghiz, ghizt (ghuzt), ghiz. 

offensive, a. (obnoxious) muhin (mhin); (foul) kerih; (dis- 
pleasing) mukeddir; offensive and defensive alliance, 
ma'ahedit hujum u dife'a. 

offer, n. talab p. matalib; v. a. {to) b'urud, 'aradt, 
•urud (*ala). 

off-hand, a. toshi. 

office, n. (post), wazifi p. wazaiyif; ma'muriyi; (com?ner- 
cial) mekteb p. mketib; (room) de'iri p. dwe'ir; ma- 
hall; government offices, dwe'ir al-hukumi; mahall ash- 

officer, n. zabit p. zubbat. 

official, n. ma'mur p. ma'murin; a. resmi; officially, ad. 

often, ad. ktir; marrat ktiri. 

oil, n. (olive) zeyt; (linseed) zeyt har; (castor) zeyt 
kharw'a; v. a. bzeyyit, zeyyett, zeyyit p.p. mzeyyet. 

oil cloth, n. mshemm'a. 


oil colour, n. lown zeyti. 

ointment J n. duhun. 

oke, n. 6"a p. o"at [4.00 drams), 

old, a. "adim p. "udm; 'ati" p. 'uta; [in age) ikhtiySr; 

ta'in fis-sinn; old age, n. sheykhukha; old fashion, 

moda "adimi; old maid, bint; old wo7nan, 'ajuz p. 

oleander, n. difli. 

olive, n. zeytuni p. zeytun ; [tree) zeytuni. 
omelette, n. 'aijji. 

omen, n. [good) 'alemi taiyibi; {bad) fel redi. 
omission, n. ihmel; sehu. 

omit, V. a. bfut, fitt, fut ; bitruk, tarakt, truk p.p. matruk. 
on, pr. 'ala; on account of, bi sebeb; minshen; 'alashen, 

on all fours, 'al al-arb'a ; on the other hayid, min jeha 

teni; on no account, abaden. 
once, n. marra; at once, ad. halan ; "aw^m; once for all, 

bes marra; oyice more, marra teni; once upon a time, 

fi zemen al-"adim. 
oneself, pro. zet-uh ; nefs-uh [with pro. suff.). 
onion, n. basli p. basl ; (spring) basl akhdar. 
07ily, ad. fa"at; bes; a. wehid-uh {with pro. stiff.), 
onyx, n. jaz'a. 
open, a. maftuh; iji the open air, fil-fela; v. a. biftah, 

fataht, ftah p.p. maftuh. 
opening, n. ti"ib (tu"ub); shi" ". 
openly, ad. jehran (jiharan). 
operation, n. 'ameliyi. 
opi?tion, n. rai p. raiyat. 

opium, n. afiyun; opium smoker, sherib afiyun. 
opponent, n. khusm p. akhsSm. 
opportuyiity , n. fursa. 


Oppose, V. a. bdadd, daddedt, dadd. 

opposite, pr. "ibel; a. m"^bil. 

opposition, n. m "awe mi. 

oppress, V. a. bizlum, zalamt, zlum p.p. mazlum; v. 
bibghi, baghait, ibghi ('ala). 

oppression, n. zulum ; bagha. 

oppressor, n. zaiim p. zuUem; baghi p. bugha. 

or, con. ow; am. 

orange, n. (sweet) burd"ani p. burd"an (bird"an); (tree) 
burd"ani; (blood) mawaradi; (seville) sfeyr (sfayr); 
laimun bisfayr (abu sfayr); {bitter) narenji p. narenj; 
(mandarin) yusuf Effendi. 

orator, n. khatib p. khutaba. 

orchard, n. bistan p. besatin (bsetin). 

order, n. amr p. awemir ; {arrange^nent) tertib ; nazam ; 
(decoration) nishen (nishan) p. nieshin; {commercial) 
talebiyi; talab; in good order, a. mazbut; v. a. (com- 
rnand) bi'mur, amert, emir (umur); (goods) bitlub, 
talabt, tlub; (anything to be 7nade), v. bwassi, wassait, 
wassi ('ala). 

ordinary, a. 'itiyadi ('atiyedi); 'aadi. 

ordinarily, ad. 'adeten. 

organ, n. urghun. 

Orient, n. al-mishri'*; ash-shar'*. 

oriental, a. shar"i. 

origin, n. mebda; asl. 

original, a. asli. 

ornament, n. zini. 

orphan, n. yetim p. ait^m. 

orphanage, n. d^r al-ait^m. 

orthography, n. hija. 

ostensible, a. zahir; wadih. 


ostrich, n. na'ami. 

other y a. and ad. ghair; otherwise, ad. wa ilia; the other 

day, ems; hidik al-yom. 
Ottoman, a. 'osmeni ('osmani); Ottoman empire, al-mem- 

lek^t al-*osmaniyi. 
ought, a. lezim; / ought to do [ought not) lezim (mush 

or mau lezim) 'amil; / ought fiot to have doyie it, ma 

ken l^zim 'amil-uh. 
our, pro. stiff, na. 
ourselves, pro. zet-na. 
out, ad. berra; outside, kherijen; min berra; outwards, 

ila berra ; out of doors, berrat al-beyt ; otit of place, 

fi ghair mahall-uh; fi ghair wa"t-uh. 
outpost, n. haris p. hurras. 

outrage, n. fehshi p. fawehish; [indignity) iheni. 
oval, a, baidi; bi shikl al-baida. 
oven, n. tennur; (kitchen) firn. 
over, pr. fow*' (fo") ; 'ala ; all over, a. kill-uh [with pro, 

suff.)\ over and above, a. 'alewi ('alawi); over again, 

teni marra; overhead, fow" ar-ras; [ended) v. [y^ per.) 

khalas; inteha. 
overcoat, n. [European) saku p. saket; bantu; {native) 

kebbut p. kbebit; tif'ili. 
overlook, [inspect) v. bnazir, na^ert, nazir ('ala) ; {excuse) 

bghudd, ghaddait, ghudd nazr ('an). 
overseer, n. nazir p. nuzzar; [on a farm) khowli 

oversight, n. sehu. 

overturn, v. a. and n. bi"Iub, "alabt, i"lub p.p. ma"lub. 
overwhelm, v. a. bihdum, hadamt, hdum p.p. mahdum. 
owe^ I owe {owed) you mo?iey, ill-ak (ken ill-ak) 'ind-i 

mesari; you owe [owed) me money, ill-i (ken ill-i) 


'ind-ak mesari ; how nuich do I owe you ? "add esh 

ill-ak *ind-i. 
owing, a. matlub ; owitig to, pr. bisebeb. 
owl, n. bumi p. bum. 
own, V. a. bimlik, melakt; [admit) v. be'itirif, 'itaraft, 

e'itirif (fi); b"urr, "arrait, "urr (fi); / own a house, 

ill-i beyt. 
owner, n. mellek; sahib p. as-hab. 
ox, n. towr (tor) p. tiran (tuwar). 
oyster, n. mhara; oyster-shell, n. sadafi p. sadaf. 

pace, n. sur'a; (step) feshkha. 

pacify, V. a. bheddi, heddait (heddeyt), heddi p.p. 

pack, V. a. bdubb, dabbeyt, dubb p.p. madbub; {in 

bundles) bihzum, hazamt, hzum p.p. vci^zxxm. {of cards), 

n. shiddi. 
package, n. rizmi p. rizmet c.p. rizm. 
packhorse, n. kedish p. kidsh. 
packing needle, n. mselli. 
packing thread, n. khitan massis. 
pack-saddle, n. {camel) hedeji p. hedejet; (mtile or donkey), 

]\€\ p. jlelet. 
pad {padding), n. hashwi; v. a. bihshi, hashait, hshi p.p. 

mihshi; b"uttin, "attant, "uttin p.p. m"uttan. 
padlock, n. "ifl p. "ufiil ("ifal).* 
page, n. wijh p. wujuh. 

pail, n. satl p. stuli; (of a well) dalu p. idilwi. 
pain, (pains) n. waj'a p. owj^'a. 


painfull a. muj'i. 

painty n. {oil) boya; dihan ; {water-colour) lown al-mai; 

V. a. {a picture) bsowwir, sowwert, sowwir p.p. msow- 

wer; {a house) bidhan, dahant, dhan p.p. madhun. 
paint-brushy n. firsheyit dihan (boya). 
painter, n. dahhan; [artist) msowwir. 
painting y n. teswir; — in oily in water-coloury teswir 

biz-zeyt, bil-mai. 
pairy n. jowz (joz) p. jewez (ijwaz). 
palacey n. "asr p. "usur; n. p. blat. 
palatey n. sa"f al-hal". 
pale, a. asfar p. sufr. 
Pales tine y Falastin. 
palingy n. taswini p. tasawin. 
pally n. ghata an-n*ash. 
palfKy [tree) sejerit belah; nakhli p. nakhl; [of the 

hand) keflf p. kfuf. 
Palmy ray Tidmur. 
paltryy a. deni. 
payiy n. [copper)y lekken p. Iken; [earthenware) m'ajen 

p. ma*ajin. 
paney n. [of glass)y lowh (loh) "izez ("izaz). 
pannier y n. seriji p. sreyij ; zenbili (zenbeli) p. znebil. 
panty V. n. (3rd per.) biyilhat, lahat. 
pantaloons, n. shirwal p. sherawil. 
panther, n. fahd. 
pantry, n. beyt al-muni. 
papery n. wara"a p. wara" (owra"); writing papery wara" 

paradey n. [milit.) *ard al-'asker; t'alim. 
parade-groundy n. sahat al-'askeriyi. 
paradisey n. jinni; ferdows. 


paragraph, n. jumli p. jumel. 

parallel, a. mawezi. 

paralysed, a. mafluj. 

paralysis, n. felij. 

parasol, n. shemsiyi. 

parcel, n. rizmi p. rizmet c. p. rizm. 

parchment, n. ri" ". 

pardon, n. *afu; semeh; v. be'ifi, 'afeyt, *ufi ('an); to 

beg some one's pardon, bitlub, talabt, tlub al-'afu min; 

/ beg your pardon, la twakhfd-ni (twakhiz-ni) ; (when 

asking for something said to be repeated), n'am; 

pare, v. a. b"eshshir, "eshshert, "eshshir p.p. m"esh- 

parent, n. w^lid; parents, weldeyn. 
parliament, n. jeme'i al-'aiyen; barlamento. 
parrot, n. dirra. 
parsley, n. ba"dunis. 
part, n. "ism p. a"sam (a"sem); jiz' p. ajeza; on the 

part of ^, min "ibel ; for my part, min jiht-i; partly 

ba'ad-uh haik, ba'ad-uh haik. 
partial, a. mutgharrid. 

particular, a. muda""i"; n. tafsil p. tafsilat; i7i parti- 
cular, 'al al-khusus. 
partner, n. sherik p. shureka. 
partnership, n. shirki ; sheraki. 
partridge, n. hajel p. hijel. 
party, n. (association) hizb p. ahz^b; (assemblage) fir'*a 

p. fiira"; (entertainment) sahra. 
pasSt (through) v. n. bmurr, marrait, murr (fi); (by) 

bimru'*, mara"t, mru" (fi or min); let pass, v. a. 

bmarra", marra"t, marri" ; n. (mountain) tari" aj-jebel. 


passage, n. zarub p. zwerib; (of a house) ma'addiyi; 

(of troops) 'ubur. 
passenger, n. rekib p. rukkeb. 
passion, n. (anger) ghaiz; (love) hawaj ruling passion^ 

passionate, a. hadd ; (of love) 'ash"an. 
passport, n. bazaburt. 
past, a. madi. 

paste ^ n. nisha; — diamonds, ilmas kizzeb. 
pastime, n. tesliyi. 
pastry, n. m'ajjenet. 

pasture, n. mer'a; (protected land) himi. 
patch, n. ru"a'a p. ru'V; v. a. bra""i', ra" "a't, ra" "i' 

p.p. mra"'V. 
paternal, a. abevvi. 

path, n. tari" p. turu"; derb p. drub. 
patience, n. sabr. 
patient, a. sabur; ruh-uh tawili. 
patriarch, n. batrak p. batarki. 
patriarchate, n. batrak-khani. 
patriot, n. muhibb li watn-uh. 
patriotic, a. watani. 

patrol, n. dowra (dora) ; v. a. and n. bdur, durt, dur. 
patron, n. hami. 
patronage, n. himeyi. 
patronise, v. a. bihmi, hamait, hmi. 
pattern, n. mastra p. msatir (msetir). 
pave, V. a. bballit, ballatt, ballit p.p. mballat. 
pavement, n. blat. 

pavillion, n. khaimi p. khiyem ; shedir p. shewedir. 
paw, n. difr (zifr) p. adfar (azfar). 
pawn, V. a. birhun, rahant, rhun p.p. merhun. 


pawn-broker y n. murtehin. 

pay, n. (salary) ma'ash; (wages) ujra (fjra); v. a. (lo) 

bidf 'a, dfa'at, df a (li) p.p. madfu'a j pay the penalty 

V. n. bit*'assas, ta"assast. 
payment, n. defa p. defat. 
pea, n. (green) bezella; (chick) hummus. 
peace, n. sulh. 
peach, n. dirra"ni (dirre"a) p. dirra"in (dirre'') jjeach-tree, 

dirra"ni (dirre"a). 
peacock, n. taus p. tawawis; pea-hen, djejit taus. 
peak (moimtain), n. ras jebel p. rus. 
pear, n. injasa p. injas; pear-tree, injasa; prickly-pear, 

sabr (subber). 
pearl, n. lulu ; mother of pearl, 'ur" lulu. 
peasant, n. fellah p. fellahin. 
pebble, n. bahsa p. bahs. 

peculiar, a. gharib; peculiar to, khass bi; makhsus fi. 
pecuniary, a. meli. 
peddler, n. dawwar; sirrah. 
pedigree, n. sel61i. 
peel, n. "ishr; orange peel, "ishr al-burd"an; v. a. b"esh- 

hir, "eshshert, "eshshir p.p. m"eshsher. 
peg, n. (tent) wated p. owtad; (hat) shenkel p. shnekil. 
pelican, n. baja'a p. baj'a. 
pell-mell, a. msha"lab. 
pen, n. "alam p. "ilam; pen-knife, "alam Xx2&\i\ pen-case, 

daweyi (dawaiyi). 
penalty, n. "isas p. "isasat. 
pencil, n. "alam resas. 
peninsula, n. shibi jeziri.] 
penitence, n. towbi (tobi). 
penniless, a. tafrSn; mfflis. 


pension^ n. ma'ash ta"a'ud. 

pensioner J n. muta"a'id. 

penury y n. fu*'r. 

people, n. nes; sh'ab. 

pepper y n. fulful; pepper-corn, habb fiilful; white — , 

fulful abyad; black — , fulful aswid. 
peppermint, n. "urs n'an'a. 
perceive, v. a. bshuf, shuft, shuf. 
per cent, fil-miyi ; 5 ^/q khamsi fil-miyi. 
perception, n. shu'ur. 
peremptory t a. mshedded; "at'i. 
perfect, a. kemil. 
perfidy, n. khiyeni. 
perform, v. a. btemmim, temmemt, temmim; [duty) v. 

n. b"um, *'umt, *'um bi wejbet. 
perfume, n. riha 'utriyi p. rweyih; v. a. b'attir, 'attert, 

'attir p.p. m'attar; bhutt ila — riha. 
perhaps, ad. yumkin ; belki (berki); con. rubbama. 
peril, n. khatr; at your peril, 'ala mes'uliyit-ak. 
period, n. middi. 

periodically , ad. kill middi u middi. 
perish, v. n. bihlak, hlikt; biftus, fatist. 
permanent, a. de'im. 
permissible, a. jeyiz; {by religion) halal. 
permission, n. izn; rukhsa; with your permission (said 

on rising to leave), bi izn-ak; bistarkhis; smah-li. 
permit, n. rukhsa; v. bismah, semaht, smah (li). 
perpendicular, a. "a'im; 'amudi. 
perplex, v. a. blebbik, lebbekt, lebbik p.p. mlebbek; 

bshowwish, showwesht, showwish afkar-uh. 
perquisite, n. berrani. 
persecute, v. a. bidtahid, idtahadt, idtahid p.p. mudtahad. 


persecution, n. idtihad. 

perseverance, n. sebet; mdewami. 

persevere, v. bdewim, dewamt, dewim ('ala); bwazib, 

wazabt, wazib ('ala). 
persevering, ruh-uh tawili. 
Persia, beled al-'ajem; Persian, a. 'ajemi. 
persist, v. bluhh, lahhait, lihh (fi). 
persistance, n. ilhah. 

person, n. shakhs p. ashkhas; zalemi p. zilam. 
personal, a. shakhsi; personally, bizet-uh [with pro, suff.). 
perspiration, n. 'ara"; in a — , a. 'ar"an. 
perspire, v. n. be'ara", 'eri"t ('ara"t). 
persuade, v. a. be"ann'u, "ann'at. "ann'a. 
persuasion, n. i"n'a. 
pestle, n. mda""a. 
petition, n. 'ardhal; m'arud. 
petitioner, n. mustedd'i; m"addim al-'ard. 
petrified (to become), v. n. (3rd per.) biyitahejjar, tahajjar 

p.p. mutahajjer. 
petroleum, n. zeyt ghaz. 
petticoat, n. tannura p. tenenir. 
philosopher, n. felosuf. 
philosophy, n. felsefi. 
phlegm, n. balgham. 
phosphorus, n. fosfor. 
photograph, n. sura p. suar; v. a. bsowwir, sowwert, 

sowwir, p.p. msowwer ; to have one's photograph taken, 

bsowwir hal-i. 
photographer, n. msowwir shems. 
photography, n. teswir shems. 
physician, n. tabib p. atibba. 
pick, V. a. [flowers), bla*'it, la"att, la**it p.p. mla*'at; 


pick Up, V. a. blimm, lammait, limm p.p. melmum; 

pick out, bna""i, na" "ait, na" "i p.p. mna" "a. 
pickaxe, n. menkush p. menakish. 
pickle, n. [anything preserved in vinegar) mkhallel ; v. a. 

bikbus, kebest, kbis mkhallel — ; we will pickle onions, 

mnikbis mkhallel basl. 
pick-pocket, n. harami p. haramiyi. 
,picnic, n. seyran. 

picture, n. resm p. rusum; sura p. suar. 
piece, n. sha"fi ; "it*a; [of works) by the piece, n. ma"a- 

ta'a; [of cloth) towb (tob). 
pierce, v. a. {make a hole in) bit"ub, te"ebt, tu"ub p.p. 

piety, n. ta"wa. 
pig, n. khanzir p. khnezir; sucking — , khannus p. 

pigeon, n. hamemi p. hamemet c. p. hamem. 
pigeon-hole, n. beyt p. biyut. 
pile, n. kumi (komi) p. kuam. 
pilgrim, n. (Christian) zeyir p. zuwar; [to Jerusalem) 

mu"disi p. ma"adsi; [to Mecca) hajj p. hujjej. 
pilgrifnage, n. ziyara ; [to Mecca) hajj ; to fftake the pil- 
grimage, bhijj, hajjait, hijj. 
////, n. habbi p. hbub. 
pillage, n. nehib; selb; v. a. binhab, nahabt, nhab (nhub) 

p.p. menhub. 
pillar, n. 'amud p. 'awemid. 
pillow, n. mkhaddi. 
pilot, n. "alauz; delil. 
pimple, n. habbi p. hbub. 

pin, n. debbus p. debebis; hair pin, debbus sh'ar. 
pince-nez, n. 'awenat; kuzluk. 


pincers, n. kammeshi. 

pinch, n. "arsa; v. a. bu"rus, "arast, "urus. 

pine, n. snowbara (snobara) p. snowbar; pine-tree, snow- 

pink, n. and a. "arunfli p. "ariinful. 

pious, a. ta"i (ti*'i). 

pipe, n. "astal p. "asatil; anbubi p. anabib; [music) z6- 
mer p. izmura; mijwiz; {tobacco) shubu"; (long) ma- 
sura ; {hubble-bubble) arkili ; parts of the 'arkili' : — top, 
"ub'a; pan, ras; feeder, "alb ("elb); tube, narbish 
(nabrish) ; mouth-piece, biz. 

pirate, n. "ursan bahr. 

pistol, n. tabanja p. tabanjet; ferd p. frudi. 

pit, n. hafra p. hafr; jura p. juar. 

pitch, n. zift; v. a. bzeffit, zeffett, zeffit p.p. mzeffet; 
V. a. {throw) bishlah, shalaht, shlah; bzitt, zetteyt, 
zitt; — a tent, v. a. binsub, nasabt, nsub khaimi. 

pitcher, n. jarra p. jrar. 

pith, n. libb; {of an argument) zebed. 

pitiless, a. "asi ; bila shefa"a. 

pity, n. shefa"a; v. bishfa", shfi"t, shfa" ('ala) ; it is a 
pity, dey*an-uh (lit: we have lost it)-, ya khisara. 

placard, n. e'alen (e'ilan) p. e'alenet. 

place, n. matrah p. matarih ; mahall ; v. a. bhutt, hattait, 
hutt; to take place v. n. (3rd per.) bisir, sar; biyihdus, 
hadas; the affair will take place {took place), bitsir 
(saret) al-hadisi; in place of, ad. bedel min ('an)j 
*awad *an; out of place, mush fi mahall-uh. 

plague, n. t^'un. 

plain, n. s^hil p. suhul; a. wadih; jelli; (ugly) bish'i f. 
bish*a; plainly, ad. sarihan. 

plaintiff, n. mudd^'i (mudda'i). 


plait, n. jdili p. jede'il; dfiri p. dfaiyir; v. a. bijdul, 

jedelt, jdul p.p. mejdul. 
plan, n. tedbir p. tedebir; (drawing) resm. 
plane, n. [level) sat-h; {tool) minhat; fara. 
plane-tree, n. dilbi p. dilb. 
planet, n. nejmi p. njum. 
plank, n. deff p. dfuf; lowh (loh) p. Iweh. 
plant, n. nebet p. nebetet; gharsi; v. a. bughrus, gha- 

rast, ghrus p.p. maghrus. 
plaster, n. jefsin (jebsin); v. a. [with lime) bjeffsin, jeflf- 

sant, jeffsin p.p. mjeffsan; (with clay) btaiyin, taiyent, 

taiyin p.p. mtaiyen. 
plate, n. sahn p. suhun; table-plate, aweni fiddiyi. 
platform, n. mastabi p. masatib. 
play, n. I'eb (I'ub) ; v. n. {at) bil'ab, I'ibt, I'ab (bi or f i) ; 

[an instrument) v. a. bdu"", da" "ait, du"" [and with 

'ala); [a part) v. a. bshakhkhis, shakhkhast, shakh- 

playfellow, n. refi" p. rfe" (arfa"). 
playthiftg, n. I'ebi (I'ubi) p. lu'ab. 
plea, n. hijji p. hujej. 

pleasant, a. taiyib; mlih p. mlah; latif p. lutafa. 
please, v. a. bibsut, basatt, bsut; to be pleased, [at), bin- 

busit, inbasatt (min); it pleases, (pleased) w^, bi'ajib-ni, 

'ajab-ni; if you please, 'amul m'aruf; dakhl-ak; do as 

you please, stifil. 
pleased, a. mesrur; mabsut. 
pleasure, n. surur; farah. 
pledge, n. rahn p. ruhuni (rhun). 
plenipotentiary, n. sefir p. siifera. 
plentiful, a. ktir p. ktar. 
plenty, n. kitra; in plenty, bi kitra. 


plot, n. rabita (rabta); [of ground) deff ard p. dfuf; v. 

b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul rabita. 
plough, n. mihrat; v. a. bihrut, haratt, hrut p.p. mah- 

rut; biflah, felaht, flah p.p. mafluh. 
ploughshare, n. sikki. 

pluck, V. a. {feathers) bintuf, nataft, ntuf p.p. mentuf. 
plug, n. sdedi; v. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p. mesdud. 
plum, n. khowkha (khokha) p. khowkh ; plum-tree, 

plumage, n. rish. 
plumb-li?ie, n. fedin p. fwedin. 
plump, a. smin p. sman. 
plunder, n. nehbi; ghanimi; v. a. binhab, nahabt, nhub 

(nhab) p.p. menhub. 
plural, n. jem'a. 
pocket, n. (coat) seyli p. syel; [trousers) jeybi p. jyeb; 

pocket-book, n. kit^b jeybi; pocket-money, n. kharjiyi; 

masruf jeybi. 
pod, n. "ishri p. "ishr. 
poem, n. "asidi p. "asaiyid. 
poet, n. she'ir p. shu'ara. 
poetic, a. she'ri (shu'ri). 
poetry, n. sh'er (sh'ur); nazm. 
point, n. nu"ta p. nu'*at; [object) ma"sad ; {weapon) ras ; [of 

view) rai ; to point out, v. a. bbeyyin, beyyent, beyyin. 
pointed, a. mrowwas. 
poison, n. semm p. sumum ; v. a. bsimm, sammait, simm 

p.p. mesmum; bsemmim, semmemt, semmim. 
poisonous, a. msimm. 
Poland, Bolonia; Pole, n. Boloni. 

pole, n. 'amud p. *awemid; (of a carriage) *arish; {geo- 
graphical) '*utb. 



policey n. bolis; [policeman) zabtiyi. 

policy, n. siyesi. 

polish, n. lima'an; sa"l; v. a, blamm'i, limm'at, lamm'i 
p.p. mlamm'a; bis"ul, sa"alt, s"ul p.p. mas"ul. 

polite, a. latif; adib. 

politeness, n. adab; lutf. 

political, a. siyesiyi. 

politics, n. siyesi; bolitikiya. 

pollute, V. a. bnejjis, nejjest, nejjis p.p. mnejjes. 

pomegranate, n. rummeni p. rummen ; — tree, rummeni. 

pomp, n. hafli; fakhfakha. 

pompous, a. mfakhfakh; pompous language, kelem fakh- 

pond, n. birki p. burak. 

ponderous, a. ti"il p. ta"al. 

pony, n. hisan zghir. 

poor, a. meskin; fa"ir; poorly, a. deblen. 

Pope, Baba. 

poplar, n. howra (hora) p. howr. 

poppy, n. khishkhashi p. khislikhash ; — seed, bezr khish- 

popular, a. mahbub. 

population, n. p. sukken ; aheli. 

populous, a. 'amer; ktir as-sukken. 

porcelain, n. sini. 

porch (portico), n. rwe" p. rwe"at. 

porcupine, n. "vinfudi p. "anafid. 

pore {of the skin), n. mesam aj-jild p. mesamat. 

pork, n. lahm al-khanzir. 

port, n. mina, p. mien; bunt. 

portable, a. khafif p. khifaf. 

Porte (the Sublime), al-bab (beb) al-'aali. 


porter, n. 'attel p. 'atteli; hammel p. hammeli. 

porterage, n. 'ateli. 

portion, n. "ism p. a"sam; jiz' p. ajeza. 

portmanteau, n. shanta. 

portrait, n. sura p. suar. 

Port Said, Bort Sa'id. 

Portugal, Bortughal; Portuguese, a. bortughali. 

position, n. merkez p. merakiz; mahall p. mahallet. 

positive, a. akid; m'ekked; positively, ad. bi te'ekid. 

possess, V. a. bimlik, melakt. 

possession, n. {immovable) milk (mulk) p. amlak; [mova- 
ble] n. p. mowjudet. 

possible, a. mumkin ; it is — , yumkin. 

possibility, n. imken (imkan). 

possibly, ad. belki; mumkin. 

post, n. (letters) bosta ; (situatioii) wazifi ; merkez ; [tim- 
ber) *amud p. 'awemid. 

posthumous, b'ad al-mowt. 

post-office, n. bostakhani ; post 7naster, mudir al-bosta. 

postpone, V. a. b'ekhkhir, ekhkhert, ekhkhir p.p. m'ekhkher. 

postscript (to a letter), n. sahh. 

pot, n. "idri p. "idr; hu" p. h"a"; dweyk p. dvveykat; 
(for preserving fruit etc.) martaban ; coffee-pot, dolit 

potash, n. "ili. 

potato, n. batata. 

potter, n. fakhuri. 

pottery, n. fakhkhar. 

pouch, n. jrab. 

poultice, n. labkha; lez"a. 

pound, n. [coin) lira; [weight) libra [i^o drains), v. a. 
bdu"", da" "ait, du"" p.p. med"u". 


pour [out], V. a. bsubb, sabbait, subb p.p. masbub; 

(away) v. a. bkibb, kebbeyt, kibb p.p. makbub. 
poverty, n. fu"r; sha"ewi. 

powder, n. budra ; {anything pulverised) mezhun. 
power, n. "udra ("idra); "uwi; (power of attorney) we- 

keli; to do all in one's power, v. b'amil, 'amilt jehd-i; 

burkud mejhud-i. 
powerful, a. "owi. 
powerless, a. da'if p. da'af. 
Powers (the Great), ad-duwel al-'azimi. 
practice, n. mumaresi; tamrin; pratika. 
practise, v. bmeris, merest, meris (fi); b'amil, 'amilt 

pratika (fi). 
praise, n. medh ; v. a. bimdah, madaht, mdah p.p. memduh. 
prank, n. sheytani. 

pray {to), v. a. and n. bsalli, sallait, salli (ila). 
prayer, n. sala p. salawat; prayer-book, kiteb as-sala. 
preach, v. n. bu'iz, wa'azt, wa'az. 
preacher, n. wa'iz; keriz. 
precaution, n. ihtiyat p, ihtiyatat. 
precedent, n. seb"a p. sew^bi". 
precious, a. temin; precious stone, hajr kerim. 
precipice, n. warta. 
preface, n. ma"addemi. 
prefer, v. a. bfaddil, faddalt, faddil. 
pregnant, a. na"il; hibli ; [of animals) ma'asheri. 
premature, "abl wa"t-uh. 
premiiwi, n. baj. 
preparation, n. istihdar p. istihdarat; ist'eded p. ist- 

prepare, v. a. bhaddir, haddert, haddir p.p. mhaddar; 

bwaddib, waddabt, waddib p.p. mwaddab. 


prescription, n. resheta p. reshetet; wasfi. 

presence, n. hadra; hadur; in the presence of, fi hudur; 
presence of viind, n. ta'a""ul; haviyig presence of mind, 
a. muta'a""il; wa'i. 

present, n. hediyi p. hedaiya; ikramiyi; (tense) al-hal; a. 
hadir; v. a. (to) b"addim, "addamt, "addim (ila) ; 
bihdi, hedeyt, hdi (ila) ; / presejited it to him, "ad- 
damt-ill-uh yeh; hedeyt-ill-uh yeh; to present arms, 
V. bekhud, akhadt, khud salam (salem); the soldiers 
presented arms, al-'asker akhad salam; at present, ad. 
halla"; fil-hal; for the present, lil-wa"t al-hadir; pre- 
sently, ad. b'ad shwayi. 

preserve, n. (jam) murabba; v. a. behfaz, hafazt, hfaz 
p.p. mahfuz. 

president, n. raiyis p. ruasa. 

press, V. a. be'usur, 'asert, *asur p.p. m'asur; (on) v. a. 
bikbus, kebest, kbis p.p. makbus. 

presume (imagi?ie), v. n. bzunn, zannait; bitsowwir, 
tsowwert (fi); (be presumptuous ) (3rd per.) biyidde'i. 

presumption, n. zunn; takhmin; (boldness) idde'a. 

presumptuous, a. mudde'i (mudda'i). 

pretence, n. tazahur. 

pretend, v. n. bitzahir, tzahert, tzahir. 

pretender, n. mudde'i. 

pretension, n. idde'a. 

pretext, n. hijji p. hujej ; hili p. hiel. 

pretty t a. kwaiyis; zarif p. zuraf; jemil c. ejmel. 

prevent, v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a ; I pre- 
vented him from going, men'at-uh yaruh. 

previous, a. s^bi"; previously, sdbi"an; "ablan. 

prey, n. ferisi; bird of — , k^sir p. kaw^sir; beast of — , 
wahsh dari p. wuhush dawari. 


price, n. temen p. atmen; s'er p. as'ar. 

priceless, [it is) ma biyi"a 'aleyh temen. 

prick, V. a. binkez, nakezt, nkuz p.p. mankuz (binghaz, 

naghazt, nghuz). 
pride, n. kibriya. 
priest, n. khuri p. khawarni. 
prince, n. emir; princess, emira. 
principal, n. (money) rismel (rismal); a. (chief) raiyis; 

asl ; the principal thing, as-shey ar-raiyisi. 
principality, n. imara. 
principle, n. (maxim) "anon p. "awanin. 
priiit, V. a. bitb'a, tab 'at, tb'a p.p. matbu'a. 
printer, n. tabb'a. 

printing-press, n. matb'a p. matab'i. 
prison, n. habs ; sijn. 
prisoner, n. mahbus p. mahbusin. 
privacy, n. wehdi. 
private, a. khususi. 
privately, ad. sirran; 'al inferad. 
privilege, n. imtiyez p. imtiyezet. 
prize, n. jeyizi p. jewe'iz. 
probable, a. arjah ; probably, al-arjah. * 
procession, n. movvkib; (bridal) jelwi; (religious) ziyeh. 
procure, v. a. bhassil, hassalt, hassil ; v. bihsul, hasalt ('ala). 
produce, n. (of the earth) hasil; mahsulat; ghalli; v. a. 

(cause) bsebbib, sebbebt, sebbib; bintij, natajt, intij ; 

(show) bikhruj, kharajt, khruj ; (of the earth) (3rd per.) 

f. bitghill, ghallet. 
profession, n. (occupation) san'a p. sanaiy'a; shighl (shughl). 
professor, n. ma'allim; mederris; isted. 
profit, n. menf'a p. menaf'i; fe'idi p. fvve'id, to sell at 

a profit, V. bbi'a, be'ut bi ribh. 


profitable, a. nef 'i ; muf id. 

profound, a. ghami". 

progress, n. nejeh (nejah); ta"addum. 

prohibit, v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a. 

prohibited (by religion), a. haram; {by law) memnu'a. 

prohibition, n. men 'a. 

project, n. murad; ghaiyi; "asd p. ma"asid. 

prolong, V. a. btowwil, towvvalt, towwil p.p. mtowwal. 

promise, n. w'ad p. mawa'id; v. a. bu'id, wa'adt, wu'id 

(wu*ud) p.p. mow'ud; we promised to do it, wa'ad-na 

promote, v. a. bra" "i, ra""ait (ra""eyt), ra" "i p.p. 

mra""a; to be promoted, bitra" "a, tra""ait, (tra""eyt) 
promotion, n. tera""i; ter"iyi. 
pronounce, v. a. bilfuz, lafazt, Ifuz p.p. melfuz. 
profiu?tciation, n. lafz. 
proof, n. burhan p. berahin. 
proper, a. mvvefi"; mnesib. 
property, n. (landed) milk (mulk) p. amlak; riz" p. arza"; 

(money) mal p. amwal. 
prophecy, n. nebuwi. 
prophet, n. nebi p. enbiya. 
proposal, n. talab p. matalib. 
propose (suggest), v. b'addim, "addamt, "ad dim fikr 

(rai) ; (intend) v. n. bu"sud, "asadt. 
proprietor, n. mellek; sahib mulk. 
prose, n. nesr. 
prosecute, v. bishtiki, shtakait (shtekeyt), shtiki ('ala); 

bidde'i, idda'ait, idde'i ('ala). 
prosecutor, n. mushtfki. 

prospect, n. amel p. am^l; (view) manzar; nazara. 
prostitute, n. zaniyi. 


prostitution^ n. zina. 

protect^ V. a. bihmi, hamait, hmi p.p. mehmi. 

protection^ n. himeyi. 

protectory n. mhami. 

proud, a. mutkebbir. 

prove, V. a. bsebbit, sebbett, sebbit p.p. msebbet; v. 

bberhin, berhent, berhin ('ala) p.p. mberhan. 
proverb, n. mesel (metel) p. emsel (emtel). 
provide, v. a. b"addim, "addamt, "addim ; / provided 

him with all he required, "addamt-ill-uh kill lawezim- 

uh; V. a. (with provisions) bmovvwin, mowwent, 

provided that, con. 'ala shart ann. 
providence, n. 'an^yi. 
provittce, n. wilaiyi p. wilaiyet. 
provisions, n. muni; zakhra (zkhiri). 
provoke, V. a. (vex) bghiz, ghizt (ghuzt); (excite) bhar- 

rik, harrakt; v. bfowwir, fowwert damm-uh; bitahar- 

rash, taharrasht (fi). 
prudence, n. futni. 
prudent, a. futin. 
prufte, V. a. bsheffi, sheffeyt, sheffi p.p. msheffa ; (of the 

vine only) bshahhil, shahhalt, shahhil; bizbur, zabert, 

zbur p.p. mezbur; pruning, n. tesh-hil. 
psalm, n. mezmur p. mezemir. 
public, n. (the) an-nes; aj-jemhur; a. 'umumi; in public, 

bil-maftuh; jiharan (jehran). 
publish, V. a. binshur, neshert, nshur p.p. menshur. 
pudding, n. hulu; hilwiyet (halawiyet). 
ptiff out, V. a. binfukh, nefakht, nfukh p.p. menfukh. 
pull, V. a. bis-hab, sahabt, is-hab; bjurr, jarrait, jurr; 

(down) bihdum, hadamt, hdum; bhabbit, habbatt, habbit. 


pulleVy n. bakera. 

pidpitj n. menber p. menebir. 

pulse, n. nabd (nabt) ; to feel the — , bdiss, dassait, diss 

pumice-stone, n. khafifen. 

pump, n. tlumba (trumbi) v. a. bshaghghil, shaghghalt, 
shaghghil at-trumbi. 

pump km, n. "ar'aa p. "ar'aat. 

p7m, n. towriya. 

punctual, a. mazbut fil-wa"t (fiz-zeman). 

punctuality, n. zabt (dabt) fiz-zeman. 

punctually, ad. fi wa"t-uh. 

punish, V. a. b"asis, "asast, "asis p.p. m"asas; (of chil- 
dren) brabbi, rabbait, rabbi p.p. mrabba. 

punishmeyit, n. "isas; (children) terbiyi. 

pupil, n. telmiz p. telemiz. 

puppy, n. jeru p. ijriyit al-kelb. 

purchase, n. mushteraj v. a. bishtri, shtrait, shtri p.p. 

purchaser, n. mushteri p. mushtenyi; sheri. 

pure, a. khalis. 

purgatory, n. mat-har. 

purge, n. mus-hii (mis-hil) ; sherbi; v. to take a — , 
bekhud, akhadt, khud mis-hil (sherbi). 

purify, V. a. btahhir, tahhert, tahhir p.p. mtahhar. 

purple, a. urjuwen. 

purport, n. madmun ; fahwa. 

purpose, n. '*asd ; ghaiyi; on purpose, ad. '*asdan. 

purse, n. jizden p. jizdenet; msarr p. msarrat. 

pursue, V. a. btarid, taradt, tSrid; bilha", lahi"t, ilha". 

pursuer, n. mutarid. 

pursuit, n. mt-aradi. 


push, n. defshi; v. a. bidfush, defesht, dfush p.p. med- 

put, V. a. bhutt, hattait, hutt ; — aivay, v. a. bshil, 
shilt, shil; — by (money), v. a. bsammid, sammadt, 
sammid; — in order, v. a. brettib, rettebt, rettib 
p.p. mretteb; bsewi, saweyt, sewi p.p. msewa; — off, 
V. a. b'ejjil, ejjelt, ejjil p.p. m'ejjel; — out, [fire) v. a. 
bitfi, tafait (tafeyt), tf i p.p. mutfi ; — %ip (at an hotel) 
V. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel ('ind or f i) ; — any one up, v. a. 
bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil. 

putrefy, v. n. (31^ per.) biyirwih, arwah. 

putrid, a. mirwih. 

puzzle, n. irtebek; (game) hazzura (hizzera); v. a. b'ar- 
bis, 'arbest, 'arbis. 

Pyramid, n. haram p. ahram. 

quack (doctor), n. dejjel. 

quackery, n. dejl; tidjil. 

quadrangle, n. mrabb'a. 

quadruped, n. zawet al-arb'a; dabbi p. dawab (daweb). 

quadruple, n. arb'at ad'af. 

quail, n. firreyi p. firri. 

qualification, n. ehliyi; sifa p. sifat. 

qualified, a. musta'id. 

quality, n. (persons) sifa p. sifat; (things), jins p. 

quantity, n. kemmiyi. 
quarantine, n. karantina. 


quarrel, n. khna"a; toshi (towshi); 'ileji; v. a. [with] 

bkhani", khana"t, khani"; bkhasim, khasamt, khasim; 

b'alij, 'alajt, 'alij. 
quarry (stone), n. ma'Ta p. ma"ari. 
quarter, n. rub'a; (of a town) hai ; hara; the Christian 

(Moslem) quarter, hai an-nasara (al-musulmin). 
quatrain, n. rubai'ya p. rubai'yat. 
quay, n. bunt. 

queen, n. ineleki p. meleket; (cards) bint. 
queer, a. gharib; {in the head) m'atuh. 
quell, V. a. bsekkin, sekkent, sekkin ; to be quelled, v. n. 

behda, hidit, hida. 
quench, v. a. (fire) bitfi, tafait (tafeyt), tfi p.p. mutfi; 

to be quenched, [y^ per.) biyintifi, intafa; {thirst) birwi, 

rawait, rwi 'atash. 
question, n. mes'eli p. mese'il; su'el p. su'elet; [affair) 

"adiyi p. "adaiya. 
quibble, n. rewaghan; v. n. brugh, rught. 
quick, a. 'ajul; seri'a c. asr'a. 
quickly, ad. bil-'ajeli ; "awem. 
quicksand, n. rami rakhu. 
quicksilver, n. zaiba". 

quiet, a. hedi ; be quiet, v. (2nd per. imper.) hida. 
quietly, ad. 'ala mahl-uh [with pro. stiff.), 
quill-pen, n. rishi p. riesh. 
quilt, n. lahaf p. lihf. 
quince, n. sferjcli p. sferjelet c.p. sferjil. 
quinine, n. kina. 
quit, V. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk. 
quite, ad. bit-tem^m; bil-killiyi. 
quits, a. p. muts^win; khalisin; we are quits, nahn 



quiz, n. maskhara; v. bitmaskhar, tmaskhart, tmas- 

khar ('ala). 
quotation, n. i"tibes p. i"tibeset. 
quote, V. a. bi"tibis, i"tabast, i"tibis p.p. mu"tebes. 

rabbi, n. khakham ; chief — , khakham bashi. 

rabbit, n. arnab p. aranib. 

rabble, n. owbash (obash); owlad (uled) Baba Hasan. 

rabies, n. keleb. 

race, n. sbe" (seba") ; {lineage) seleli ; race horse, hisan 

seba" (sbe"); race course, mermah; miden. 
racing, n. as-sbe" (as-seba"). 
radical, a. asli. 
radish, n. fijli p. fijil. 

raft, n. towf p. atwaf ; [of inflated skins) kelek. 
rafter, n. rumiyi p. rwemi. 
rag, n. khir*'a p. khfra". 
ragged, a. mun'tt; retit; he is ragged, tyeb-uh muritti 

rail [of railway), n. khatt. 
railing, n. drabzin (drabzun) p. drabzunat. 
raihuay [railroad), n. sikkit al-hadid. 
rain, n. shiti; matar ; v. n. (3rd per. f.) bitshetti, shettit; 

bitmattir, mattarit. 
rainbow, n. "ows "adah. 
raise, v. a. birfa, ref'at, irfa p.p. marfu'a. 
raisin, n. zbibi p. zbib. 
rake, n. musht; mejrafi. 
ram, n. kebsh p. akbesh (kebush). 


ramble, v. n. bdur, durt, dur. 

ramrod, n. mdekk al-barudi. 

rancid, a. miznikh. 

rancour, n. hi"d. 

random (at), ad. bila "asd; bila fikr. 

range, n. mada ; mesefi ; at long (short) range, 'ala mada 

be'id ("arib). 
rank (degree), n. rutbi; dereji; {inilit.) saff p. sfuf. 
ransack, v. a. bfettish, fettesht, fettish ktir; {milit.) bin- 

hab, nahabt, nhab p.p. menhub. 
ransom, n. fi'diyi; v. a. bifdi, fedait (fedeyt), fdi p.p. 

rape, n. fadah (fatah). 
rapid, a. seri'a. 

rare, a. nedir; rarely, ad. nediren. 
rascal, a. muhtel; khabis; n. ibn haram. 
rash, n. (eruption) tafra; a. 'ajul. 
rat, n. jirdown p. jeradin. 
rate, n. (speed) sur'a; (exchange) s'er. 
ratification, n. musada"a. 
ratify, v. a. bsadi'*, sada"t, sadi" ('ala) p.p. musada" 

rattle, n. tantani ; v. a. ^«^ n. btantin, tantant, tantin ; 

{childs' toy) n. khashkhashi ; death rattle, kharrara. 
raven, n. ghrab p. ghurben. 
ravine, n. wedi p. widian. 
raw, a. (uncooked) ney; (unprepared) khami. 
ray, n. sha'a. 

raze, v. a. bihlu**, hala"t, hlu". 
razor, n. mus (hala"a) p. mw^s. 
reach, v. a. (grasp) btul, tult, tul ; (arrive) v. n. (y^ per.) 

biyusal, wusil; within reach, bi"dir tal-uh (lit: I can 


reach it); out of reach, ma bitusal id-i ill-ha (lit: my 

ha?id does not arrive at it) ; the parcel reached me, 

ar-rizmi wuslit-ni ; to be within reach, v. n. (31^ per.) 

biyintal, intal m'a; it is out of my reach, ma biyi'n- 

tal m'a-i. 
read, v. a. bu"ra, "arait ("areyt), "ra. 
readily, ad. 'al ar-ras wal-'ain. 
reading, n. "araiyi; reading the papers, "araiyit aj- 

ready, a. hadir; make ready, v. a. bwaddib, waddabt, 

waddib p.p. mwaddab; get ready, v. n. bhaddir, had- 

dert tel-i, haddir hal-ak; ready viade, a. hadir; ready 

money, n. na'*diyi. 
real, a. ha'T'i; real property, n. mulk (milk) p. amlak; 

really, ad. fe'elen. 
reap, v. a. buhsud, hasadt, hsud p.p. mahsud. 
reaper, n. hassad. 
rear, n. mukhir; (bring up) v. a. brabbi, rabbait, rabbi; 

[of a horse) v. n. (y^ per.) biyu"af (biwa" "if), wa" "af 

'ala rijleyh. 
reason, n. [sense) 'a"l; (cause) sebeb p. asbeb; by reason 

of bi sebeb. 
reasonable, a. ma"ul; (moderate) mu'tidil. 
rebel, n. 'asi p. 'usat. 
rebellion, n. 'isiyan. 
rebound, v. n. (3rd per.) bituj, taj ; the ball rebounds on 

the ground, at-tabi bittuj 'al al-ard. 
rebuild, v. a. bjeddid, jeddedt, jeddid al-bina. 
rebuke, v. a. bwabbikh, wabbakht, wabbikh; n. towbikh. 
recall, v. a. brejj'i, rajj'at, rejj'i; (remember) bitzekkir, 

tezekkert, tezekkir. 
recede, v. n. birj'a, rj'at (rj'et), rj'a (rje'a). 


receipty n. wasl p. wusulet. 

receive^ v. n. (3rd per.) (///: it reaches 7ne) biyusal-ni, 
wusil-ni ; biyurid-li, warad-li ; v. a. (money) bi"bad, 
"abadt, i"bad ; {visits) bista"bil, sta"belt, sta"bil. 

recent, a. jdid; hadis. 

recently, ad. min middi "asiri; mu'akhiren. 

reception, n. isti"bel; reception day, yowm isti"bel. 

recess, n. ta"a. 

recite, v. a. bu"ra, "arait, "ra; / will recite it to you, 
bu**ra lak yeh. 

reckless, a. taiyish; 'ajul. 

reckon, v. a. bihsub, hasabt, hsub p.p. mahsub. 

recognise, v. a. b'arif, 'arift, 'arif ; [admit), bsellim, sellemt, 
sellim (fi). 

recollect, v. biftan, ftunt, ftan (fi). 

recommend, v. bwassi, wassait, wassi (f i) ; / recommended 
him to you, wassait-ak fih. 

recommendation, n. towsiyi ; letter of — , mektub towsiyi. 

recompense, n. jeza; mkefa. 

reconcile, [to) v. a. bsalih, salaht, salih m'a; to be recon- 
ciled to, V. n. bitsalah, tsalaht , tsalah m'a; / recon- 
ciled them to one another, salaht-hum m'a ba'ad-hum. 

reconciliation, n. msalaha. 

record, v. a. b"eyyid, "eyyedt, "eyyid p.p. m"eyyed. 

recover, v. a. {get back) bisterj'i, sterj'at, sterj'i; bhassil, 
hassalt, hassil ; (health) v. n. bsuhh, sahhait, suhh ; 
bishfa, shefit. 

recovery, n. shffa. 

recruit, n. 'asker "ur'a. 

red, a. ahmar f. hamra p. humr. 

redress, n. tardiyi. 

Red Sea, al-bahr al-ahmar. 


reduce, v. a. bkhaffid, khaffadt, khaffid; bna" "is, na" "ast, 

na""is; b"ellil, "allelt, "ellil. 
reduction, n. takhfif. 
reed, n. "asabi p. "asabat. 
reef, n. sakhra p. skhur ; {of a sail) taiyi. 
reel, n. kerker p. kerakir ; reel of cottoyi, bekeret khitan. 
refer, [to) v. a. bhowwil, howwelt, howwil (ila); braj'i, 

raj 'at, raj'i; / referred him to you, ba'att ill-ak yeh; 

/ will refer to you, braj'ak. 
reflect (think), v. biftikir, iftakert, iftikir (fi) ; (light) v. n. 

(3rd per.), biy'ekus, 'akas; the mirror reflected the 

light, al-mereyi 'akaset ad-dow. 
reflection, n. fikr; (light) 'aks. 
reform, n. islah p. islahat. 
refresh (revive), v. a. bin'ish, na'asht, ne'ish; brattib, 

rattabt, rattib; to be refreshed, bint'ish, inta'asht. 
refreshing, a. mun'ish. 
refuge, n. melja; to take — , v. n. biltiji, iltajeyt, il- 

tiji (ila). 
refugee, n. multiji. 
refufid, V. a. brudd (bridd), raddait (reddeyt), rudd 

refusal, n. rafad. 
refuse, v. a. burfud, rafadt, urfud; refuse to answer, 

bridd, reddeyt, ridd ('ala). 
regard, n. 'itibar; v. a. (esteem) be'itibir, 'etebert, e'iti- 

bir; (look at) bunzur, nazert, nzur; bshuf, shuft, 

regent, n. ne'ib (na'ib) melek. 
regimeyit, n. alay p. alaiyat. 
region, n. jeha p. jihet. 
register, n. sijill p. sijillet; defter p. defetirj v. a. b"ey- 


yid, *'eyyedt, "eyyid p.p. m'*eyyed; bsejjil, sejjelt, 

sejjil; (letters) bsowkir, sowkert, sowkir p.p. msowker. 
regret, n. asaf; (penitetice) nedemi; v. bit'assaf, t'assaft 

(bit'essaf, t'esseft) 'ala. 
regrettable, a. mukeddir. 
regular, a. muntazim; "anuni. 
regularly, ad. haseb al-"an6n. 
regulation, n. "anon p. "awanin. 
reign, n. (government) mulk ; (period) 'ahd ; reign over, 

V. a. bihkum, hakamt, hkum; v. bimluk, melekt, 

mluk ('ala); {influence) v. n. (3rd per.) biyistowli, 

istowla 'ala; terror reigned over the people, istowla 

al-khowf 'al an-nes. 
rein, n. sir'a p. sru'a. 
reinforce, v. a. binjud, nejedt, njud. 
reinforce7nent, n. nejdi p. nejdet. 
relate, {to) v. a. behki, hakait (hakeyt) hki ila; / related 

him a story, hakeyt ill-uh hikeyi. 
relation {relative), n. "arabi p. "araiyib (ahl); {on the 

mother's side) nesib p. ansiba. 
release, n. khalas; v. a. bitlu", tala"t, tlu" ; bdeshshir, 

deshshert, deshshir. 
reliance, n. ittikal; istinad. 
relic, n. ikhiri (dkhiri) p. zakhaiyir. 
relief, n. mse*adi; is'af; bas-relief, na"sh beriz. 
relieve, v. a. bis'ef, sa'aft, se'if. 
religion, n. din (diyeni) p. adien. 
religious, a. dini. 
relish, n. t'ami; Hzzi. 
reluctance, n. nufur. 
rely {on), v. n. bistinid, stenedt, stinid ('ala); bittikil, 

ittakelt, ittikil (ala). 



remain^ v. n. bib"a, bi"it, ib"a; bwa" "if, wa" "aft, 

wa""if; V. n. bduU, dalleyt, dujil. 
remainder^ n. be"i (ba"iyi). 
refnark, n. mulahaza. 
remarkable J a. mustahi"" az-zikr. 

remedy y n. 'ilaj ('ilej) p. 'ilajet; v. a. b'alij, 'alajt, 'alij. 
remember y v. a. bitzekkir, tezekkert, tezekkir. 
remembrancey n. tezekkur. 
remindy (any one of)y v. a. bzekkir, zekkert, zekkir — 

fi; bfattin, fattant, fattin — fi. 
remonstrancey n. 'itirad p. 'itiradat. 
remorse, n. towbikh ad-damir; nedemi. 
remote, a. be'id p. ba'ad. 
removaly n. na"li; (from office) 'azl. 
remove, v. a. bshil, shilt, shil ; (pnt or take ojit) bdahhir, 

dahhart, dahhir; {to displace and to change houses) 

V. a. and n. bin"ul, na"alt, n'ul (n"il); (from office) 

V. a. be'azil, *azalt, 'uzul; to be removedy bin'izil, 

render, [cause to be) v. a. bsaiyir, saiyert, saiyir; bij'al, 

ja'alt, ja'al. 
rendezvous y n. multa"a. 

renewy v. a. bjeddid, jeddedt, jeddid, p.p. mjedded. 
renouncey v. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk. 
renoivHy n. shuhra. 

renty n. kiri; ujra (ijra); {tear) shi"". 
repair y [repairs) n. taslih p. taslihat ; v. a. bsallih, sallaht, 

sallih p.p. msallah; bsevvi, savveyt, sewi p.p. msewa; 

it must be repaired, lezim taslih-uh. 
repay, v. a. be'ufi, wafeyt, ufi. 
repeat, v. a. bkerrir, kerrert, kerrir p.p. mkerrer. 
repeatedly, ad. tekraran. 


repent^ v. n. btub, tibt, tub. 

repentance^ n. towbi (tobi). 

repentant, a. teyib. 

repetition, n. muraj'a; tekrar. 

replace, v. a. bridd, reddeyt, ridd ila matrah-uh. 

reply, n, jeweb p. jewebet ; v. a. [to) bjewib, jewabt, jewib. 

report, n. ta"rir p. ta'Virat; [rumour) ishe'a; [firearms) 

tala"; V. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul ta"rir; v. a. bkhabbir, 

khabbert, khabbir ('an) ; / will report to you about it, 

bkhabbir-ak 'ann-uh. 
repose, n. raha; v. n. birteh (birtah), irtaht, irteh. 
represent [explain), v. a. bbeyyin, beyyent, bey y in ; [as 

an agent) v. bitwekkel, twakkelt, twakkel ('an). 
representations, n. p. beyyenet; m'arudat. 
representative, n. mutawekkil. 
repress, v. bighlub, ghalabt, ghlub ('ala). 
reprieve, n. mihli. 

reprimand, n. towbikh; v. a. bkeddir, keddert, keddir. 
reprisals, n. akhd at-tar. 
reproach, n. lowm. 

reprove, v. a. bwabbikh, wabbakht, wabbikh. 
reptile, n. hashra p. hashrat. 
republic, n. jumhuriyi; republican, a. jumhuriyi. 
repudiate, v. a. binkur, nakert, nkur. 
repugnance, n. nufur; keraha. 
reputation, n. sit. 

request, n. iltimes; v. biltfmis, iltemest, iltfmis (min). 
require, v. a. b'uz, 'izt; bihtej, ihtajt. 
rescue, n. khalas; v. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; to the 

rescue I 'ala ms^'adi. 
research, n. teftish; fahs. 
resemblance, n. mshebeha. 


resemble^ v. a. bishbih, shebeht. 

reserve, n. ihtiyat; (discretion) ihtiraz; (milit.) redif; in 

reserve, a. ze'id ; v. a. behfaz, hafazt, hfaz p.p. mahfuz. 
reserved, a. muhtfriz; ras-uh ti"il. 
reservoir, n. howz (howd). 
reside {in), v. n. biskun, sekent, skun (fi); bisti"im, 

sta"amt (fi). 
residence, n. mesken p. msekin. 
resident, n. sekin p. sukken. 
resign, v. bista'fi, sta'fait, sta'fi (min). 
resigjiation, n. iste'fa; {patience} sabr. 
resigned, a. sabur. 
resiyi, n. simgh (samgh). 
resist i v. a. b"ewim, "ewamt, "ewim. 
resistajice, n. m"awemi. 
resolute, a. 'azum; sahib 'azm. 
resolution, n. 'azm. 

resolve [on), v. be'izum, *azamt, 'uzum ('ala). 
resources, n. wesili p. wese'il. 

respect, n. ihtiram v. a. behtirim, ihtaramt, ihtfrim. 
respectable, a. muhterem ; mu'eteber. 
respectftd, a. mahshum; muhtishim. 
responsible, a. mes'ul. 
responsibility, n. mes'uliyi. 
rest, n. raha; {remainder) kemeli; b6"i (ba"iyi). 

V. n. bnem (bnam), nimt, nem (nam(; {on) v. a. bis- 

nud, senedt, snud ('ala); v. n. bistinid, stenedt, 

stinid ('ala). 
restless, a. 'adim ar-raha. 
result, n. netiji p. nete'ij. 

resurrection, n. "iyemi; day of — , yowm al-"iyemi. 
retail, n. bey'a bil-muferra" ; to sell — , bbi'a bil-muferra". 


retain, v. a. bib"i, ba"eyt, ba"i ; bba" "i, ba""eyt, ba'* "i. 
retreat, n. ruj'u (rej'it); v. n. birj'a, rj'at, rj'a. 
retribution, n. mjeza. 
return, n. ruj'u; v. n. birj'a, rj'at (rj'eyt), rj'a (rje'a); 

V. a. brajj'i, rajj'at, rajj'a; bridd, reddeyt, ridd. 
reveal, v. a. bikshuf, kesheft, kshuf. 
revenge, n. inti"am. 
revenue, n. madkhul; dukhl, (dakhl). 
review (milit:), n. t'alim ; 'ard al-'asker; yu"lama; v. a. 

b'urud, 'aradt, 'urud; b'amil yu"lama. 
revolt, V. n. be'asa, 'asait ('asit), 'asa. 
revolution, n. (turn) dowra ; [rising) towra (tora) ; hareki. 
revolve, v. n. (3""^ per.) bidur, dar. 
revolver, n. rivolver. 

reward, n. mkefa ; {tip) hilwen ; v. a. bkefi, kefait, kefi. 
rheumatism, n. waj'a al-mafasil. 
rhubarb, n. rawend. 
rhyme, n. "afiyi. 
rib, n. dil'a p. adl'a. 
ribbon, n. shrita p. shraiyit. 
rice, n. riz. 

richf a. ghani p. aghniya; zenghin. 
riches, n. ghina; serur. 
riddle, n. hazzura (hizzera). 
ride, v. a. birkeb, rkibt, irkeb {and zvith 'ala). 
rider, n. khaiyel p. khaiyeli ; rekib. 
ridge, n. dahr aj-jebel. 
ridicule, n. maskhara ; hazu ; v. (laugh at) bitmaskhar, 

tmaskhart 'ala; (despise) bistehzi, stehzeyt (fi). 
ridiculous, a. mudhik; ad. bila m'ana. 
riding, n. rukub. 
rife, n. barudi msheshkhani p. bawarid. 


right, n. yemin ; to the right, 'al yemin; [truth] ha""; 

sawab; a. musib; [in order) mazbut; you are right, 

al-ha" " m'a-ak (inti musib). 
rigid, a. mtwattir (mwettir). 
rind, n. "ishri p. "ishr. 
ring, n. har'a p. hal'at c.p. hala"; [of a chain) zaradi 

p. zaradet; c.p. zarad; [signet) khatim p. khawatim 

(khawetim); [engagement) khatim al-khitbi; v. a. [a bell) 

bdu"", da" "ait, du"" aj-jaras. 
ringlet, n. khusli p. khusl. 
riot, n. fitni. 
ripe, a. nadij ; mistwi. 

rise, V. n. b"um, "umt, "um; bitl'a, tl'at; tl'a. 
risk, n. khatr; mukhatera; v. bkhatir, khatert, khatir (fi). 
rival, n. khusm p. akhsam; mnazir. 
rivalry, n. mseba"a; mnazera. 
river, n. nahr p. nhura (linhur). 
rivet, n. kharzi p. kharzet; rabta p. rabtat; v. a. bikhruz, 

kharazt, khruz p.p. makhruz. 
riveting, n. tekhriz. 
rivulet, n. se"i p. sawe"i. 

road, n. derb p. drub; tari" p. turu"; sikki p. sikek. 
roan [horse), a. mba""aj; (azra" mba""aj). 
roar [of laughter), n. "ah"aha. 
roast, V. a. bishwi, shaweyt, shwi p.p. mishwi. 
rob, V. a. bisru", sara"t, sru"; [on the road) bshellih, 

shellaht, shellih p.p. mshellah. 
robber, n. harami p. haramiyi; seri" p. surra". 
robbery, n. sir"a; selb. 
robe, n. bedH. 
robust, a. "ovvi p. "awaiya. 
rock, n. sakhra p. skhur; v. a. bhizz, hazzait, hizz. 


rocket, n. sahm nari; sarukh. 

rogue, a. khabis. 

roguery y n. khubs; mekr. 

roll, n. leffi; [list] "ai'mi; v. a. bliff, leffeyt, liff p.p. 

melfuf; [of bread) bru"", ra" "eyt, ra""; v. n. (along) 

bdahrij, dahrajt, dahrij. 
roller, n. mahdeli p. mahadil. 
rollingpin, n. showbek p. shwebik. 
Rome, Rumi; Romaji, a. rumani; Ronian church, dX-'ktmsiX. 

roof, n. sath p. stub. 

room, n. uda p. uwad; [space) matrah; fus-ha. 
root, n. shirsh p. shurush ; {of a matter) asl; {up) v. a. 

bi'Ta, "al'at, i"l'a. 
rope, n. habl p. hibal (hibel). 
rosary, n. mesbaha p. mesebih. 
rose, n. wardi p. wardet c.p. ward ; rose-colour, a. wardi ; 

rose-water, ma' ward ; ma'zahr ; attar of roses, 'utr 

rot, V. n. (3rd per.) [of wood) bisowwis, sowwas, p.p. 

msowwis; [vegetables) biyihtiri, ihtara p.p. mihtfri; mihri. 
rotation [in), ad. bin-nowbi (nobi); bid-dowr (dor). 
rough, a. ghaliz p. ghulaza ; khishin ; [sea) heyyij ; {road) 

roughness, n. wa'ar; khushuni; ghalSza. 
round, a. mdowwer; p. 'ala de'ir; howl (hawal); all 

round, *ala de'ir ('ad-de'ir); der min dur; turn round, 

V. n. bdur, durt, dur hawal. 
route, n. tari" p. turu". 

row, n. [line) saff p. sfuf; in rows, bis-saflf; n. [distur- 
bance, khna"a; toshi (towshi) ; [noise) dajji (doji); v. a. 

(a boat) b"addiC "addaft, "addif. 


royaly a. meleki (muluki). 

rttb, V. a. bimsah, masaht, msah; bifruk, ferikt, fruk; 

{piU) bimhi, mahait, mhi p.p. mimhi ; [scratch) bhikk, 

hakkait, hikk p.p. mahkuk. 
rubbish, n. [sweepings) knesi ; zbeli ; {nonsense) dun. 
ruby, n. ya"uti p. ya"ut. 
rudder, n. deffat al-merkeb. 
rude, a. fazz; sef ih ; bila merba. 
rudijuents, n. p. usul; mabedi. 
ruffian, n. ibn haram; sherrir p. ashrar. 
rug, n. [carpet) sejjedi; [covering) hram p. hramet. 
rugged, a. we'ir f. we'd. 
ruin, n. khirbi p. khara'ib; v. a. bikhrub, kharabt, khrub ; 

b'attil, 'attalt, 'attil. 
ruined, a. kharab (kharban). 
rtde, n. "anon p. "awanin; v. a. [lities) bsattir, sattart, 

sattir; [govern) bihkum, hakamt, hkum. 
rider, n. [governor) hakim ; [for lines) mastra p. msatir 

rumour, n. ishe'a. 
rjin, V. n. birkud, rakadt, urkud ; {a race) bsebi", seba"t, 

sebi"; [away) bihrub, harabt, hrub; [after) bilha", 

lahi"t, ilha*'; {risk) bkhatir, khatert, khatir. 
running, n. rakad. 

rupture, n. khilef; kksumi; [hernia) fta". 
rural, a. berri. 
rusk, n. ghurabiyi. 

Russia, Rusiya; miskob; Russian, a. miskobi. 
rust, n. sidi; v. n. (3rd per.) bisaddi, sadda. 
rusty, a. msaddi. 


sabre i n. seyf p. siyuf. 

sacky n. kis p. kyes. 

sacredy a. m"addas. 

sacrifice^ n. {religions) "urben; [fig) dahiyi p. dahaiya; 

V. a. [an animal) bidbah, dabaht, dbah; [fig.) bdahhi, 

dahhait, dahhi. 
sady a. mkedder. 
saddle y n. serj. p. suruj ; {native) 'iddi p. 'ided; — a 

horsey v. a. bshidd, sheddait, shidd 'al al-hisan. 
safey a. selim; n. sandu" hadid. 
safely y ad. m'as-salemi ; bil-amen. 
safetVy n. salemi. 
saffrouy n. z'aferan. 
said (preceding)y a. mazkur. 
sail, n. "al'a p. "ulu'a. 
sailor, n. bahri p. bahriyi. 
sainty n. *'addis p. "adisinj {before a name) mar; {Moslem) 

sake (for the sake of)y pr. minshen. 
saladf n. salata; salad oily zeyt as-salata. 
salary y n. ma'ash; mehiyi. 
saUy n. bey'a; for sale, lil-bey'a. 
saliva, n. ri". 
salmoTTy n. somon. 

salty n. tnilh; salt-cellar y memlaha; a. melih f. melha. 
saltpetrey n. milh al-barud. 
salute, n. salam (sal^m); v. bsellim, sellemt, sellim 'ala; 

(milit.) bekhud, akhadt, khud salem. 
salvation, salami; {eternal) khalas. 


same J a. 'ain ; nefs ; zet [with pro. suff.) ; all the samej 

mitl ba'ad-uh ; sawa ; all the same to me, la far" 'ind-i ; 

at the same time, fil-wa"t zet-uh; fi nefs al-wa"t. 
sample, n. mastra p. msatir (msetir) ; (of grain) 'aini p. 

sanction, n. msadi"a. 

sand, n. rami; sajid-storm^ zowba'a (zoba'a). 
sandal, n. n'ali p. n*al. 
safidal wood, n. sandal. 
sane, a. selim al-'a"l; sahib al-'a"l. 
sanguinary, a. damawi. 
sanguine, a. wesi". 
sanitary, a. sahhi ; mwefi" lis-sihha ; — office, nezarit 

as-sihha ; — cordo?i, kordon ; — doctor, tabib as-sihha. 
sap, n. 'asir an-nebet. 
sapling, n. nasbi p. nasb. 
sapphire, n. hajr as-safir. 
sarcasm, n. istfhza. 
sarcophagus, n. naus p. newewis. 
sash, n. zinnar p. znenir. 
Satan, n. iblis (blis). 
satchel, n. mahfaza p. mahafiz. 
satiated, (to be) v. n. bishb'a, shb'eyt, shb'a. 
satin, n. atlas. 
satisfaction, n. rida. 
satisfactory, a. murdi. 
satisfied, a. radi. 
satisfy, v. a. birdi, rdait, rdi; to be satisfied, v. n. birda, 

irdit, irda (fi or bi); birtidi, irtadeyt, irtidi. 
saturate, v. a. bbill, bellait (belleyt) bill p.p. meblul. 
Satj4rday, nahar (yowm) as-sebt. 
sauce, n. salsa j mar"a. 


saucepafi, n. tanjara p. tanajir. 

saucer, n. sahn zghir p. suhun. 

sausage, n. ma'*ani (na"ani). 

savage, a. berberi; wahshi. 

save, V. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; (life) bnejji, nej- 

jait (nejjeyt), nejji; [econoinise) bwaffir, waffert, waffir. 
savijigs, n. p. towfiret; fadlat. 
savoury, a. leziz. 
saw, n. minshar p. meneshir. 
sawdust, n. nishara. 
say, V. a. bi"ul (bi"il), "ult ("ilt), "ul ("il) ; behki, hakait 

(hakeyt), hki. 
saying, n. mesel (metel) p. emsel (emtel). 
scab, n. "ishri p. "ishr ("ishur). 
scabbard, n. "irab p. "irabet. 
scaffold, n. meshna"a. 
scaffolding, n. sa"ali. 

scald, V. a. bihru", hara"t, huru" p.p. mahru". 
scale, n. mizen p. miezin (mowazin) ; {one side of the 

balance) keffi; [proportion) *'iy^s; (of a fish) "ishri; to 

adjust the weights, b'aiyyir, 'aiyyert, 'aiyyir al-mizen. 
scalp, n. "ishrit ar-ras. 
scandal, n. 'ar. 
scar, n. ^ter jurh. 
scarce, a. nedir; "alii al-wujud. 
scarcely, ad. bil-kedd. 
scarcity, n. "illit al-wujud. 

scarecrow, n. fizze'a p. fizze'at; khiyel p. khiyel(^t. 
scarlet, a. "irmizi. 

scatter, v. a. bferri", ferra"t, ferri" p.p. mferra". 
scent, n. riha p. rw^yih ; scent bottle, "anninit riha. 
scheme, n. tedbir p. tedebir. 


scholar^ n. telmiz p. telemiz. 

school, n. medresi p. mederis; — felloiv, refi" fil-med- 

resi; — fnaster, ma'allim medresi. 
science y n. 'ilm p. 'ulum; (branch of) fenn p. finun. 
scissors, n. m"ass p. m"assat. 
scold, V. a. bwabbikh, wabbakht, wabbikh. 
scolding, n. towbikh. 
scorch, V. a. bshowwit, showwatt, showwit p.p. mshow- 

wat; to be scorched, v. n. (3rd per.) bishut, shat; 

scorching, n. shwit. 
scorpion, n. a"rabi p. a"arib (a"erib). 
scoundrel, n. sherrir p. ashrar. 
scout, n. delil; [niilit.) ra'id al'asker. 
scrape, v. a. bhikk, hakkait, hikk p.p. mahkuk. 
scratch, v. a. bikhdush, khadasht, khdush p.p. makh- 

dush ; [of a cat) (3rd per.) bikharmish, kharmash. 
screayn, n. saiha (seyha) v. n. bsih, suht, sih. 
screen, n. stara. 
screw, n. birghi p. beraghi; v. a. bifruk, ferikt, fruk; 

screw-driver, mafrak. 
scrub, V. a. bimsah, masaht, msah. 
scruple, n. tereddud ; ihtiraz. 

scrupulous, a. mutereddid f i ; (having scruples) muhtfriz f i. 
scull, n. mi"daf zghir p. ma"adif zghiri. 
sculpture, n. na"sh p. n"ush. 
scum, n. raghwi. 
sea, n. bahr. 
seal, n. khatm p. khtumi ; v. a. bikhtum, khatamt, khtum 

p.p. makhtum. 
sealing-wax, n. sham'a ahmar (aswid). 
seam, n. derz p. druz. 
search, v. bfettish, fettesht, fettish (fi); bdowwir, dow- 


wert, dowwir (fi); search for, bfettish, (bdowwir) *ala. 
season, n. fasl p. fusul. 
seasoning, n. hashwi. 
seat, n. ma" 'ad p. ma"a'id. 
seaweed, n. 'ishbi bahriyi. 
second, n. (time) t^niyi (vide numerals), 
secondhajid, a. musta'mel. 
secret, n. sirr p. asrar; a. sirri. 
sect, n. ta*ifi p. tawa'if; milli p. milel. 
section, n. "ism p. a"sam (a"sem). 
secure, a. amin p. umena; madmun. 
sediment, n. rasib. 
sedition, n. *isiyan. 
seditious, a. 'asi. 

see, V. a. bshuf, shuft, shuf; bi"sh'a, "ish'eyt, i"she'a. 
seed, n. bezr p. bzurat. 
seek, V. bfettish, fettesht, fettish ('ala) ; bdowwir, dowwert, 

dowwir (fi). 
seem, v. n. (y^ per.) bibeyyin, beyyen; biyizhar, zaher. 
seize, v. a. bizbat, zabatt, izbat. 
seldom, ad. nediren. 
select, V. a. bna""i, na""ait, na" "i ; bukhtar, ikhtart, 

self, pro. zet; hal ; nefs (with pro. stiff. )\ vide grammar 

p. 17 reflexive pronouns, 
selfish, to be, v. (3rd per.) bihibb iet-uh. 
selfishness, n. mahabbit az-zet. 
sell, V. a. bbi'a, be'ut, bi'a. 
seller, n. bey'i p. bey*an. 
send, V. a. bib'at, ba'att, b'at. 
senior, a. akhbar. 
sense, n. *a*'l ; (meaniTtg) m*ana ; the senses, n. p. al-haw^ss. 


senseless (lifeless), a. fe"id al-hiss; ad. bila hassiyi; {mea- 
ningless) ad. kilmi bila m'ana. 

sensible, a. *a"il. 

sensitive, a. basses. 

sentence, n. (phrase) jumli p. jumel; (judicial) hukm p. 

sentinel, n. ghafer p. ghaferat. 

separate, a. munfusil; separately, wahd-uh wahd-uh. 

separation, n. mfara"a. 

September, ailul. 

sequester, v. a. bihjuz, hajazt, hjuz p.p. mahjuz. 

seraglio, n. [edifice) seraiyi; {ladies of) hurmi p. harim. 

sergeant, n. showush. 

serious, a. {things) muhimm c. ahamm ; {persons) razin; 
seriously, ad. bi jedd. 

sermon, n. wa*az; kirezi. 

serpentf n. haiyi p. haiyat c. p. haiyaiya. 

servant, n. ijir f. ijiri ; khadim f. khadmi p. khuddem 
(khiddem p. khiddemin). 

serve, v. a. bikhdum (bukhdum), khadamt, khdum. 

Servia, beled as-Sirb; Serviari, a. sirbi. 

service, n. khidmi p. khidemet. 

set, n. ta"m p. tu"um (tu"umi); v. a. bhutt, hattait, 

settle, V. a. {a question) bisruf, saraft, sruf; bsewi, saweyt, 
sewi ; {price) bufsul, fasalt, fsul (fs^l) ; {conditions) bsherit, 
sharatt, sherit; v. n. {of wine) (3rd per.) biyursub (bi- 
yirsib), rasab. 

several, a. ba*ad {with pro. suff,). 

severe, a. shedid p. shidad ; sarim. 

sew, V. a. bkhaiyyit, khaiyyatt, khaiyyit p.p. mkhaiyyat. 

s€wer, n. balu'a; siya". 


sex, n. jins p. ajnes. 

shabby, a. retit (retten) ; beli. 

shade, n. fei; zil (zul). 

shadow, n. khiyel p. khiyelet. 

shaft (of a carriage), n. 'arish. 

shake, V. a. bhizz, hzzzait, hizz; [of clothes) bnuffid, 

naffadt, nuffid p.p. mnaffad. 
shallow, a. feyish (faiyish). 
shame, n. 'aib. 
shameless, ad. bila haiya. 
shape, n. shikl p. shikel. 
share, n. sahm p. as-hem; hissa p. hisas. 
shareholder, n. sahib sahm. 
shark, n. kelb bahr. 
sharp, a. madi; hadd. 

sharpen, v. a. bsinn, sennait, sinn p.p. mesnun. 
sharpener [steel), n. msenn. 
shave, v. bihlu", hala"t, hlu" (hli") ila p.p. mahlu"; 

shave me, hli"li; / shaved him, hala"t ill-uh; clean 

shaved, a. hali". 
shawl, n. shel p. shelet. 
she, pro. hiyi. 

shear, v. a. bjizz, jezzeyt, jizz p.p. mejzuz. 
shears, n. mjezz. 
sheath, n. "irab p. "irabet. 
sheathe, v. a. bhutt, hattait, hutt fil-"irab. 
shed, n. si"ifi ; v. a. [blood) bisfuk, sefekt, sfuk; [skin) 

(3rd per.) biyishlah, shalah. 
sheep, n. ghanam p. aghnem; sheep dog, kelb al- 

sheet, n. sharshaf p. sharashif; [paper) tarhiyi p. tarahi. 
shelf t n. reflf p. rfuf. 


shell, n. sadafi p. sadaf; {bomb) "unbli p. "anebil ("un- 

bera p. "anebir) j shell fishy n. sadaf. 
shelter y n. ma'wa; to take shelter , v. n. bita'awa, ta'a- 

weyt, ta'awa ila. 
shepherd, n. ra'i p. rai'y^n. 
shield, n. turs p. atras. 
shine, v. n. (3rd per.) biyilm'a, lam'a. 
ship, n. merkeb p. merakib. 
shipwreck, n. inkisar merkeb. 
shirt, n. "amis p. "umsan; "amis kowi. 
shiver, v. n. birjif, rjift. 
shoe, n. subbat p. sababit; (peasanfs) mdas p. mdaset; 

(long red) zarbul p. zarabil; v. a. {horse) bbaitir, 

baitart, baitir p.p. mbaitar; (bbeytir, beytart, beytir 

p.p. mbeytar). 
shoemaker, n. kinderji. 
shoot, V. a. b"owwis, "owwast, "owwis. 
shop, n. dikken p. dekekin. 
shopkeeper, n. sahib dikken. 
shore, n. shatt. 

short, a. "asir p. "asar c. a"sar. 
shorten, v. a. b"assir, "assert, "assir p.p. m'assar. 
shortly, ad. bil-ikhtisar; al-hasil; (presently) b'ad "alii; 

b'ad shwayi. 
shortsighted, a. "asir an-nazr. 
shot, n. (lead) khirdu"; (discharge) darb p. drubi ; 

shoulder, n. kitf p. aktef. 
shout, n. saiha (seyha) ; 'ayta ; v. n. bsih, suht, sih ; (to) 

b*aiyit, 'aiyett, *aiyit (ila);w^ shouted to him, 'aiyet- 

shovel, n. mejrud p. mejerid. 


show, n. firji; {exhibition) ma'rad ; v. a. {to) bferrji, ferr- 

jait, ferrji ('ala). 
shower, n. zakhkhar. 
shrewd, a. shatir p. shuttar. 

shrine, n. tnazar p. mazarat; ma"am p. ma"amat. 
shrink, v. n. (3rd per.) bighibb, ghabb; bidubb, dabb. 
shroud, n. kefen p. ekfen. 
shrub, n. sejera zghiri. 
shut, V. a. {close) bughlu", ghala"t, ghlu" p.p. maghlu'*; 

(fasten) bsekkir, sekkert, sekkir p.p. msakker. 
shutter, n. derfi p. derfet. 
shy, a. khajulj v. n. {of a horse) (3rd per.) biyijfal, 

sick, to be, V. n. bistefrigh, stafraght, stefragh; to be sea 

sick, V. n. bdukh, dukht. 
sickle, n. menjil p. mnejil. 
side, n. jeneb p. jeneb (jenib p. jewenib); right side 

{of material) wijh; wrong side, "afa. 
siege, n. hisar. 
sieve, n. {coarse) ghirbel p. gharabil; (fine) mfnkhul p. 

sift, V. a. bgharbil, gharbelt, gharbil p.p. mgharbel; 

binkhul, nakhalt, nkhul p.p. menkhul. 
sifter, n. minkhul. 

sigh, n. tenahhud; v. n. bitnahhad, tnahhadt, tnahhad. 
sight, n. nazr; sight-seeing, firji; long-sighted, a. be'id 

sign, n. 'al6mi p. 'alemet; v. a. bimdi, madait (madeyt), 

mdi p.p. mamdi. 
signal, n. ishara. 
signature, n. imda p. imdawet. 
signet, n. khatim p. khawStim (khaw6tim). 



silence y n. sukut; v. a. bsekkit, sekkett, sekkit. 

silenty to be, v. n. biskut, sakatt, skut; be silent, (irnper.) 

skut f. skiti; khras; sidd timm-ak. 
silk, n. harir; silk-factory, n. kirkhanit harir; m'amel harir, 
silkworm, n. dudit al-"azz p. dud al-"azz. 
silly, a. ahma" p. him"in (himu"). 
silver, n. fidda. 

silversmith, n. saiyigh p. siyagh. 
similar, a. mitl; shebih p. ashbah. 
simple, a. basit p. busata; simply, bes; fa"at. 
sin, n. khatiyi p. khataiya; zenb p. znub; v. n. bukhti, 

khatait, khti. 
since, pr. min ; ad. b'ad; con. b'ad ma; limma. 
sincere, a. mukhlis. 
sincerity, n. ikhlas. 
sijiew, n. 'asab p. 'asab; (fig.) "uwi. 
sing, V. a. bghanni, ghannait, ghanni; {sacred music), 

brettil, rettelt, rettil. 
singer, n. mughanni. 
singing, n. ghina; [sacred) tertil. 
single, a. ferd; [unmarried) *azeb; singly, kill wehid 

singular, n. mufred; a. gharib. 
sink, V. n. bighru", ghri"t, ghra"; v. a. bgharri", ghar- 

ra"t, gharri". 
sinless, a. beri p. ibriya. 
sinner, n. mfznib; mijrim. 
sir, n. sid-i (/^V. 7ny lord), 
sirocco, n. shlu". 
sirtip, n. sharab. 
sister, n. ikht (ukht) p. khaiyet; sha"i"a; sister-in-law, 



sitf V. n. bu" 'ud, "a'adt, u" 'ud. 

sitting (of a court), n. jelsi. 

situation, n. merkez. 

size, n. "add; (bulk) hajm. 

skein, n. shelli (shilli) p. shlel. 

skeleton, n. heykel p. hiyekil. 

skeiver, n. sikhshek p. siakhshek; sikh p. siyakh. 

skilful, a. mehir. 

skill, n. mahara. 

skin, n. jild p. jlud; v. a. bislakh, salakht, slakh p.p. 

skirt, n. tannura p. tenenir. 
skittles, n. mahajj. 
skull, n. jumjmi p. jemejim. 
sky, the, n. aj-jow. 
slack, a. rakhu f. rakhwi. 

slacken, v. a. brakhkhi, rakhkhait, rakhkhi p.p. mirkhi. 
slang, 11. kelem derij. 
slap, n. latmi. 

slate, n. lowh hajr; slate pencil, "alam hajr. 
slaughter, n. medbaha (mezbaha); v. a. bidbah, dabaht, 

dbah p.p. medbuh; slaughter house, n. meslakh. 
slave, n. *abd p. *abid; female — , j^riyi p. jeweri. 
slavery, n. 'ubudiyi. 
sleep, n. nowm (nom) v. n. bnem (bnam), nimt, nem 

(nam); asleep, pres, part, neyim. 
sleepless, to be, v. n. bi"la", "ili"t; ad. bila nowm. 
sleepy, a. n*as^n ; sleepifig, n. menami. 
sleeve, n. kimm (kumm) p. kem^m. 
slender, a. refi'a p. rfa'a c. arfa. 
slice, n. sha"fi. 
sling, n. mi"ra. 


slipi V. n. bizla", zli"t, zla"; n. (of a plant) shetli ; feskha ; 

(of the pen) zellit "alam. 
slipper, n. shahata. 

slippery, to be, v. n. (3rd per.) bizelli". 
j/^'/, n. khiz"; V. a. bishrut, sharatt, shurut. 
slope, n. nezli. 
j/tJTi', a. buti ; /^ ^^ slow, v. n. (3rd per. f.) of a watch, 

bitta'akhkhir (bitta'assir) as-s^*a; slowly, ad. 'ala mahl-uh 

(with pro. stiff.) ; shwayi shwayi ; to be slow in, v. n. 

bitda" "ar, tda" "art, tda" "ar fi kitebi (meshi) in writing, 

walking etc. 
slowness, n. mehli. 
sluggard, a. belid; keslen p. kesela. 
sluice, n. sukr p. skura. 
slush, n. wahl. 
sly, a. muhtel; hielji. 

small, a. zghir p. zghar c. azghar sup. al-azghar. 
smallness, n. zughr; (meanness) denewi. 
smallpox, n. jidri. 
smart, a. (intelligent) zi'ki; nfshit; (spruce) ghandur; n. 

alem; waj'a; v. n. (3rd per.) biyuj'a, waj'a. 
smash, n. dajji (doji); v. a. biksur, kesert, ksur p.p. 

maksur; to be smashed, v. n. (3rd per.) biyinkisir, 

smear (zvith), v. a. blattikh, lattakht, lattikh p.p. mlat- 

takh (fi). 
smell, n. riha p. rweyih; bad — , riha rediyi; good — , 

riha taiyibi ; v. a. bshimm, shemmait, shimm; v. n. 

(3rd per.) ill-uh riha, ken luh riha. 
smile, n. tebessum; v. n. bitbessam, tbessamt, tbessam. 
S)nith, n. hadded. 
smoke, n. dukhkhan; v. n. (3rd per.) of a chimney, bi- 


dakhkhin, dakhkhan; v. a. [of tobacco) bishrab, shribt, 
shrab (tutun); v. n. bdakhkhin, dakhkhant, dakhkhin. 

smokyfy a. mdakhkhin. 

smooth, a. ne'im (na'im); milis. 

smoothly, ad. bis-suhuli. 

smotJier, v. a. bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. makhnu'*. 

smuggle, V. a. bherrib, herrabt, herrib p.p. mherrab. 

smuggling, n. tehrib. 

S?nyrna, Izmir. 

snail, n. bezza"a; halazun. 

snake, n. haiyi p. haiyat cp. haiyaiya. 

snare, n. sherek; masiyadi; fikhkh (fakhkh). 

sneeze, v. n. bu'atus, 'atast, 'utus. 

snipe, n. shikbi p. shikkub. 

snore, v. n. bishkhur, shakhart, shkhur. 

snow, n. telj ; v. n. (3rd per. f.) bititlij, talijit. 

snowdrift, n. kumi telj. 

snuff, n. 'atus; snuff-box, 'elbit 'atus; to take snuff, w.z. 
bshimm, shemmait, shimm 'atus. 

so, ad. haik (heyk); is it not so? mush haik (mauheyk); 
so and so [of persons) a. fulan f. fulani ; [of things), 
ad. keia wa keza; so that, con. hatta (ta). 

soak, V. a. bin'*a', na"a't, n"a'. 

soap, n. sabun. 

sober, a. sahi. 

sociable, a. an is. 

society, n. jem'iyi. 

sock, n. kelsi p. kelset; jrabi p. jrab^t; pair of socks, 
jowz kelset. 

socket, n. tejwif. 

soda, n. "ili. 

sofa, n. diw^n. 


soft, a. rikhis; ne'im (na'im); leyyin. 

soften, V. a. [by water) btarri, tarrait, tarri; {by fire) 

bleyyin, leyyent, leyyin. 
softly, ad. bi hudu. 
soil, n. tirab; v. a. bwassikh, wassakht, wassikh p.p. 

mwassakh; to be soiled, v. n. bitwassakh, twassakht. 
solace, n. tesliyi. 
solder, n. Iham; v. a. bilhum, lahamt, Ihum p.p. 

soldier, n. *askeri p. 'asker; [private) nefer p. anfar. 
sole, a. wahid; n. [of the foot) asfal (sifl) al-"adam; [of 

a boot) n'ali; n'alit as-sirmeyi p. n'al; solely, ad. 

fa"at; bes. 
solemn, a. ihtifeli. 

solicit, V. biltimis, iltemest, iltimis (min). 
solid, a. metin. 
solitude, n. wehdi. 
solution, n. hall. 

solve, V. a. bhill, hallait, hill p.p. mahlul. 
solvejit, a. sagh; "edir 'al al-wafa. 
some, a. ba'ad; somebody, wehid; sometimes, ahiyenen; 

somewhere, f i meken ; f i mat rah ; somehow, kif ma ken ; 

something, shi. 
son, n. ibn p. benin (benun) ; so7i-in-law, suhr p. as- 

har; ojily son, ibn wahid. 
song, n. ghinniyi; {sacred) tertil. 
soon, ad. b'ad "alii; sooner or later, b'ad ktir ow "alii; 

too soon, bekkir; as soon as, metama. 
soot, n. shahhar. 
soothe, V. a. blatif, lataft, latif ; [of pain) bsekkin, sek- 

kent, sekkin. 
sordid, a. tamma'a. 


sore, n. jurh p. juruh; sore back, {of a horse), dahr-uh 

m'a"ur; to be sore, v. n. (3rci per.) biyuj'a, waj'a. 
sorrow, n. hizn; in sorrow, haznan. 
sorry, a. z*alen; to be sorry, v. n. bit'essaf, t*esseft, 

(bit'assaf, t'assaft) p.p. mut*essif ; ana z'alen, kint z'alen. 
sort, n. sinf p. asnaf ; now' (no') p. anw'a ; v. a. (arrafige) 

brettib, rettebt, rettib p.p. mretteb. 
soul, n. nefs ; ruh. 

sound, n. sowt; hiss; a. (healthy) sagh. 
soup, n. showrba (shorba). 
sour, a. hamud f. hamda. 

source, n. {water) neb'a p. nbu'a; {origi?i) masdar. 
south, n. "ubli ("ibli) ; southern, a. jenubi. 
souvenir, n. tezkar. 

sovereign, n. melik p. muluk; {Turkey) sultan. 
sow, V. a. bizr'a, zar'at, zr'a p.p. mazru'a. 
space, n. fus-ha. 
spacious, a. fasih; wes'i. 
spade, n. merr p. murur; rafsh p. rufush; {of cards) 

Spain, Isbania; Spanish, a. isbaniyuli. 
spatt, n. shibr p. ashbar. 
spare, v. (do without) bistaghni, staghnait, staghni ('an); 

a. ze'id (za'id); spare copy, niskha ze'idi. 
spark, n. sharara p. sharar. 
sparkle, v. n. (3rd per.) biyilm'a, lam'a. 
sparrow, n. *asfur p. 'asafir. 
speak, V. n. behki, hakait (hakeyt), hki; bitkellam, tkel- 

lamt, tkellam. 
spear, n. rimih p. rmSh. 
special, a, khususi, 
species, n. now' (no') p. anw'a. 


Specimen^ n. mastra p. msatir (msetir). 

speck y n. latkha. 

spectacle^ n. firji; manzar; mash-had. 

spectacles y n. kuzluk; n. p. 'awenat. 

spectator J n. mutferrij. 

speech, n. khitab. 

speed, n. sur'a; 'ajeli; speedily, bi sur'a; seri'an. 

spell, V. a. bitahejja, tahejjait, tahejja. 

spelling, n. hija. 

spend, V. a. bisruf, saraft, sruf p.p. masruf; to be spent, 

(3rd per.) biyinsarif, iiisaraf. 
spice, n. bahar p. baharat; tib p. atyab. 
spider, n. 'ankebut p. 'anekib. 
spill, V. a. bkibb, kebbeyt, kibb p.p. makbub. 
spin, V. a. bighzul, ghazelt, ghzul (ghzil) p.p. maghzul. 
spinach, n. sbenikh. 
spindle, n. maghzil. 

spinning-wheel, n. dulab (duleb) al-ghazl. 
spirit, n. ruh p. arwah; out of spirits, ma luh keyf. 
spit, n. (for roasting) shish p. shiyesh; sikh p. siyakh; 

V. n. bibzu", baza"t, bzu". 
spite, n. hi"d; iyi spite of, ghasb *an ; raghman 'an. 
spittle, n. bze'*. 
splendid, n. fekhir. 
splint, n. jbar p. jbarat; to put in splints, v. a. bjebbir, 

jebbert, jebbir p.p. mjebber. 
split, n. shi""; V. a. bshi"", sha" "ait (sha""eyt), shi"" 

p.p. mesh"u'*. 
spoil, V. a. binz'a, nez'at, nz'a; b'attil, 'attalt, 'attil; 

V. n. (3rd per.) biyintiz'i, intez*a; spoilt, a. manzu*a. 
spoke, n. {of a wheel) *arda p. *awarid. 
sponge, n. sfinji p. sfinj. 


spooHy n. mara'*a p. ma'ali". 

sport, n. (/ww) I'eb (I'ub); [shooting) said. 

sportsman, n. saiyyed (saiyyad). 

spot, n. mowd*a p. mwad'i. 

spout, n. [of a jug) zellumi ; [of a fountain) sab'a p. 

ash 'a [lit. a lion). 
sprain, n. radda; sud'a; v. a. brudd, raddait, p.p. mar- 
dud; bisd'a, sad'at p.p. masdu'a. 
spread, v. a. bmidd, meddait, midd p.p. memdud ; [out) 

binshur, neshert, nshur; bifrush, farasht, frush p.p. 

sprijig, n. [season) ar-rabi'a; [water) 'ain p. 'uyun. 
sprinkle, v. a. brushsh, reshshait, rushsh p.p. marshush. 
sprout, n. nebti; firkh; v. n. (3rd per.) bferrikh, ferrakh; 

biyinbut, nabat. 
spur, n. mihmez p. mahamiz. 
spurious, a. mzowwer., 
spy, n. jesus p. jewesis. 
squadron, n. 'amara. 

squatider, v. a. bbeddir, beddert, beddir. 
square, a. mrabb'a; n. [open place) saha; the municipal 

square, sahat al-belediyi. 
squeeze, v. a. be'usur, *asert, *asur p.p. m'asur. 
squib, n. fitteshi. 
squinteyed, a. ahwel. 

squirrel, n. "ar'adun p. "ara"din; sinjebi p. sinjeb^t. 
stab, n. t'ani p. t'an^t. 
stability, n. sebet. 

stable, n. yakhur p. yakhurat; istabl p. istablet. 
stack, n. kdis p. kids^n; v. a. bkeddis, keddest, keddis 

p.p. mkeddes. 
stag, n. aiyyel p. aiy^*il. 


Stage, n. {theatre) mersah; (Journey) mhatta. 

stagnant, a. rakid (ra"id). 

stain, n. latkha; v. a. blattikh, lattakht, lattikh p.p. 

staircase, n. derej p. diraj ; spiral — , lulab p. Iwelib. 
stake, n. wated p. owtad; {at play) rahn p. ruhun. 
stale, a. beyitj yebis; stale bread, khibz yebis; v. n. 

(3rd per.) {of a horse) bibowwil, bowwal. 
stalk, n. se" (sa*') p. si"an. 
stall (for cattle), n. ma'alaf. 
stallion, n. fahl p. fuhul. 
stammer, v. n. btemtim, temtemt, temtim. 
stamp, n. damgha; {postage) bul; wara"it bul p. wara" 

bul; V. a. bidmagh, damaght, dmagh p.p. madmugh. 
stand, V. n. bu"af, u"ift, u"af; stand tip, b"um, '*umt 

("imt) "urn. 
standard, n. {flag) baira" (beyra*'). 
star, n. nejmi p. njum; shooting star, nezi". 
starch, n. nisha; v. a. bneshshi, neshshait, neshshi p.p. 

start, V. n. bibtidi, btedeyt, btfdi. 
starve, v. n. bmut, mutt min aj-ju'a; v. a. bmowwit, 

mow watt, mowwit min aj-ju'a. 
state {condition), n. hal; the state of affairs; al-ahwal; 

{pomp) ihtifel. 
statement, n. khaber p. akhber. 
station, n. mhatta. 
stationary, a. wa"if. 
stationery, n. p. lawezim al-kitebi. 
statistics, n. p. 'idadiyet; ta"wim. 
statue, n. timsel p. temesil. 
stature, n. "ami. 


Stay, V. n. bib"a, bi"it, ib"a; bu"'ud, "a'adt, u'*'ud; 

let stay, v. a. bba" "i, ba" "eyt, ba""i; v. n. bdull, 

dalleyt, dull. 
steady, a. rasikh ; sebit. 

steal, V. a. bisru'*, sara"t, sru" p.p. masru". 
steam, n. bukhar. 

steamer, n. wabur p. waburat; (babor p. baborat). 
steel, n. buled; [for striking fire) "addaha. 
steep, a. {downhill) msallat; {uphill) we"fi. 
steer, v. a. bdowwir, dowwert, dowwir. 
stench, n. riha keriha. 
step, n. khatwi; (of stairs) dereji p. derajet; steps, n. 

sillum; derej. 
stern, n. (of a ship) mukhir al-merkeb; a. sarim; "asi. 
stew, n. yakhni. 
steward, n. wekil kharj ; krarji. 
stick, n. 'asa p. 'usi; (small) "adib p. "udben; v. a. 

blazzi", lazza"t, lazzi" p.p. mlazza" ; v. n. (y^ per.) 

biyilza" lizi". 
sticky, a. dibi"; mdebbi". 
stiff, a. (solid) jemid; {hard) silib; "asi. 
stifie, V. a. bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. makhnu". 
stifling, a. ti"il. 

still, a. hedi; ad. kamen; b'ad; m'a zelik. 
stillness, n. sukun; hudu. 
sting, n. les'aa; 'a"sa; v. n. (y^ per.) biyils'a, les'a; 

biy'a"as, *a*'as ; (of a wasp) biyu*'rus, "aras. 
stingy, a. bakhil p. bukhal. 
stink, n. natni; v. n. (3'-d per.) biyintin, natan. 
stipulate, v. n. bishturit, shtaratt, shturit. 
stir, V. a. bharrik, harrakt, harrik; v. n. bitaharrak, 

taharrakt, taharrak. 


stirrupy n. rikebi p. rikebet. 

stocky n. (flower) mentura p. mentur; [of a gun) "anda" 

stockitig, n. kelsi p. kelset; jrabi p. jrabet. 
stoker, n. wa'* "ad. 
stomachy n. me'di. 
stone, n. hajr p. hijar; (of fruit) bezri p. bezr; stone 

cement, hajriyi; [for floors) 'adasi; {^for roof s) zxQy'^di. 
stony, a. mehjir. 
stool, n. skemli. 

stoop, V. n. bnikhkh, nakhkhait, nikhkh. 
stop, V. n. bib"a, bi"it, ib"a; v. a. and n. bwa" "if, 

wa""aft, wa""if; [prevent) bimn'a, men'at, mn'a; stop 

up, V. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p. mesdud. 
store, n. [provision) muni; [quantity) kemmiyi; store 

house, hasil ; makhzen ; [for grain) beyiki p. beweyik ; 

store room, beyt al-muni. 
stork, n. lu"lu" p. la"ali". 

storm, n. 'asifi p. 'awasif ; zowba'a (zoba'a) ; [at sea) now. 
^story, n. [of a house) taba"a; upper — , fu"ani; 'ulwi; 

lower — , tahteni ; ardiyi ; [tale) hikeyi ; teller of stories, 

stout, a. jesim; smin p. sman. 
stove, n. uja" p..uja"at. 
straight, a. dughri; in a straight line, rasan; 'ala khatt 

straightforward, a. musta"im. 

strain, v. a. (clarify) bsaffi, saffait, safifi p.p. msaffa. 
straiyier, n. misfeyi (misfaiyi). 
strange, a. gharib p. ghvireba; stranger, n. gharib p. 

strangle, v. a. bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. makhnu". 


Strap, n. seyr p. siyura. 

straw, n. "eshsh ; chopped straw, tibn. 

strawberry, n. tut franji (frez). 

stream, n. se"i p. sawe"i. 

street, n. tari" p. turu" (tur"at); z"a*' p. z"a"at. 

strength, n. "uwi. 

strengthe?i, v. a. b"owwi, "owweyt, "owwi. 

stretch, v. a. bmidd, meddait, midd p.p. memdud. 

strict, a. shedid p. shidad ; sarim ; strictly, ad. bi ted"i". 

strike, V. a. bidrub, darabt, drub; {tents) bi'Ta, "al'at, 

i'Ta al-khaimi. 
string, n. khait massis; v. a. (beads, papers etc.) bshikk, 

shekkeyt, shikk p.p. meshkuk. 
strip, n. sha""a p. shi"a"; v. a. {naked) b'arri, 'arrait, 

'arri ; stripped, a. 'ariyen ; (rob) v. a. bshellih, shellaht, 

shellih; (the leaves of trees) bjimm, jemmeyt, jimm 

p.p. mejmum; bjizz, jezzeyt, jizz p.p. mejzuz. 
stripe, n. "alam p. i"lam; striped, a. ma"allam. 
stroll, n. kezdara; v. n. bkezdir, kezdert, kezdir. 
strong, a. metin ; shedid p. shidad; "owi p. "awaiya. 
strop, n. (of a razor) "aish. 
struggle, n. khna"a; v. (fight with) bita'arak, ta'arakt, 

m'a; (of animals) v. n. (3rd per.) bikhabbit, khabbat. 
stubborn, a. 'anid. 
stucco, n. jefsin (jebsin). 
student, n. telmiz p. telemii. 
study, n. ders; v. a. bidrus, darast, drus. 
stuff, n. (material) "imesh ("imash); v. a. bihshi, hashait, 

hshi p.p. mihshi. 
stumble, v. n. bitd'atir, td'atirt; (of a horse) (y^ per.) 

biyit'as, te'is. 
stumbling block, n. hajr 'atera. 


Stump {of a tree), n. "urmiyi p. "arami. 

stupid, a. ahma" p. him"in (himu"); belid. 

style, n. zey; (of writing) nefes. 

subject, n. [mowdu'a; [of a state) r'aiyi p. ra'aiya; 

subscribe, v. a. bishtfrik, shtarakt, shtirik; biktitib, ik- 

tatebt, iktitib. 
subscription, n. iktiteb; ishtirak. 
substance, n. maddi. 

substantive, n. ism p. isma (esami or asemi). 
substitute, n. bedel; v. a. [for) bibdul, bedelt, bdul p.p. 

mebdul (bi); — one thing for another, v. a. bistebdil, 

stebdelt, stebdil. 
subtract, v. a. bitrah, taraht, trah p.p. matruh. 
subtraction, n. tarh. 
succeed, v. n. binjah, nejaht, injah; [come after) v. a. 

bekhlaf, khalaft, khluf. 
success, n. tofi"; nejah. 
successful, a. mwaffa". 
successor, n. khalaf p. khulefa. 
such as, a. mitl-uh (with pro, suff.). 
snck, V. a. bmuss, massait, mussj bmu"", ma" "ait, 

sucking, n. mass. 

sudden, a. baghti; faje'i; j«^</^«(y, ad. baghteten; faj'aten. 
suet, n. shahm. 

Suez, Sues; Suez canal, kanat as-sues. 
suffer, V. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtimil. 
suffering, n. alem ; 'azeb. 
sufficient, a. kefi ; to be — , v. n. (3rd per.) bikeffi (biyikfi) 

ken kefi. 
sugar, n. sikker; loaf of — , ras sikker; Imnp — , sikker 



she"af; moist — , sikker ne'im (na'im); sugar cane, 

"asab mass; "asab sikker. 
suggest, V. b'ati, *atait ('ateyt), 'ati rai (fikr). 
suggestiofij n. rai; fikr p. afkar. 
suicide, n. "atl nefs; intihar; to commit — , v. bi"tul 

nefs-i; bintihir, intahart. 
suit, n. [of clothes) ta"m p. tu"umi; bedli p. bedlet; 

V. a. (3rd per.) biwefi", wafa" [and with 'ala) ; binesib, 

nasib; it suits 7ne, biwefi"-ni (binesib-ni). 
suitable, a. mwefi"; mnesib. 
suitor, n. talib p. tullab. 
sulphur, n. kebrit. 
Sultan, sultan. 
sum, n. (money) meblagh p. mebeligh; (arithmetic) ^aimel 

p. a'mel ('ameliyi); (smn total) al-mejmu'a. 
summer, the, n. as-saif; to pass the — , v. n. bsaiyyif, 

saiyyeft, saiyyif; stimmer residence, n. mahall saifiyi. 
summit, n. ras aj-jebel. 
summon, v. a. bistahdir, stahdart, stahdir. 
summons, n. buslit (buslaiyit) ihdar; wara"it jelb. 
sun, n. shems; sun rise, shuru" (tlu'a) ash-shems; sun 

set, ghiyeb (ghurub) ash-shems (al-mughrib). 
Sunday, nahar (yowm) al-had. 
sunstroke, n. darbat shems. 
sup, V. n. bit'ashsha, t'ashshait, t'ashsha. 
superfluous, a. fadli ; ze'id. 

superintendent, n. nazir p. nuzzar; wekil p. wukela. 
supper, n. *asha. 

suppose, V. n. bzunn, zannait, zunn. 
suppress, v. a. (conceal) bikhfi, khafait, khfi; (restrain) 

bimn*a, men'at, mn'a; (calm) bhammid, hammadt, 



sure, a. akid ; m'ekkid ; / am sure, ana mut'ekkid. 
surface, n. sath; wijh p. wujuh. 
surgeon, n. jerrah. 
surname, n. la"ab p. ar'ab. 
surplus, n. fadli ; zod. 

sur price, n. dehshi ; v. a. bidhish, dahesht; [to take un- 
awares) bibghat, baghatt, bghat ; to be surprised, v. n. 

bit'ajjab, t'ajjebt, t'ajjeb p.p. mut*ajjib. 
surrender, n. teslim; v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim p.p. 

sjirround, v. a. bhowwit, howwatt, howwit p.p. mhowwat. 
surroundings, n. jiri; his — , jirt-uh. 
suspect, V. bishtibih, ishtabaht, ishtibih (fi); bzunn, zan- 

nait, zunn (fi) p.p. maznun fih. 
suspicion, n. shubha. 
suspicious^ a. (causing suspicion) meshbuh; [entertaining 

suspicion) zannan. 
swallow, n. snuni; hej^ji; v. a. bibl'a, bel'at, bl'a p.p. 

swamp, n. bata". 
swan, n. ghurnu" p. gharani". 
swear, v. n. bihluf (bihlif) halaft, hluf; bi"sim, "asamt, 

sweat, n. 'ara"; v. n. be'ara", 'eri"t ('ara"t). 
Sweden, Esuj ; Swede, esuji. 
sweep, V. a. bkennis, kennest, kennis p.p. mkennas; 

b"ishsh, "ashsheyt, "ishsh. 
sweet, a. hulu c. ahla f. hilwi; sweets, n. p. halawiyat. 
sweetheart, n. habibi. 
swell, V. n. buram, warimt. 
swelling, n. waram p. owram. 
swift, a. seri'a. 


swinif V. n. bisbah, sabaht, sbah. 

swindle, n. ghish; v. a. bghish, ghashait, ghish p.p. 

swiney n. khanzir p. khnezir. 
swing, n. marjuha; 'anzu"a p. *anezi*'; v. a. bmerjih, 

merjaht, merjih; v. n. bitmerjah, tmerjaht. 
Switzerland, Swisera; Swiss, a. swisrani. 
swollen, a. werim ; wermen. 
swoon, V. n. bighma, ghmit {vide to faint), 
sword, n. seyf p. siyuf; husem p. husemet. 
sycaviore, n. jimmezi p. jmaiyiz. 
syllable, n. ma"t'a p. ma"at'i. 
symbol, n. ramz p. rumuz. 
symptom, n. alemi ; {of disease) 'arad p. a'rad. 
syntax; n. 'ilm an-nahu. 
Syria, Suria; Syrian, a. suri. 
syringe, n. {medical) hi"ni p. hu"n; garden — , trumbi; 

mreshshi; v. a. {medical) bih"un, ha"ant, hu"un. 
system, n. nazam p. nazamet; tari"a p. tiiru". 

table, n. towli p. towlet; table-cloth, ghata towli. 

tablet, n. lowh (loh) p. Iweh. 

tact, n. io" ; man of tact, sahib z6". 

tail, n. danab p. adneb; deyl p. dyal. 

tailor, n. khaiyyat. 

take, V. a. bekhud, akhadt, khud (khod) ; — away, bshil, 

shilt, shil; — off, bishlah, shalaht, shlah. 
tale, n. hik(5yi p. hikaiya; *'issa p. *'isas. 
talent, n. m6whebi. 



talky n. haki; v. n. behki, hakait (hakeyt), hki; bitkel- 

1am, tkellamt, tkellam; talk nonsense, bihruf, haraft. 
talkative^ to be, v. n. bijrush, jarasht; b'allik, 'allakt; 

a talkative person, a. *allak. 
tall, a. tawil p. tuwal c. atwal. 
tallow, n. shahm. 
tally (with), v. n. (3rd per.) bitabi", taba" (m'a or 

talon, n. difr (zifr) p. adfar (azfar). 
tamarisk, n. turfaiya p. turfaiyet c. p. turfi. 
tambourine, n. deff p. dfuf. 
tame, a. elif; juwwi. 

ta7i, V. a. bidbugh, dabaght, dbugh p.p. madbugh. 
tangle, n. sherbeki; in a tangle, msherbek. 
tank, n. birki p. burak; bahra; howd (hod) p. ahwad. 
tanner, n. debbegh (debbagh). 
tanyard, n. debbegha. 
tap, n. khanafiyi. 
tape, n. shrit. 
taper, n. sham'a. 

tapeivorm, n. dudi 'arida; dudi wahidi. 
tar, n. "atran. 

tarantula, n. rtaila (kirteyli) p. rtailat. 
tares, n. zewen. 
target, n. nishen; *alem. 
tariff, n. ta'rifi. 
tarnished, a. mwassakh. 

task, n. shighl (shughl) p. ashghel; 'amel p. a'mel. 
tassel, n. sherrabi p. sherarib; turra. 
taste, n. t'ami ; v. a. bzu" (bdu"), zu"t (di"t), zu" (du"); 

good taste, n. z6**. 
tauntt n.tai'yir v. a. b'aiyyir, 'aiyyert, 'aiyyir. 


tax, n. resm p. rusumet; taxes, mal miri; v. a. bekhud, 

akhadt, khud (khod) resm (min). 
tea, n. shay; strong — , shay ti"il; weak — , shay khafif; 

tea cup, finjen p. fn^jin; tea leaves, wara*' ash-shay; 

tea pot, bri'* shay. 
teach, V. a. b'allim, 'allamt, 'allim. 

teacher, n. ma'allim f. ma'allimi; mederris f. mederissi. 
tear, n. dam'a p. dmu'a; shed tears, v. n. bdamm*i, 

damm'at, damm'i. 
tear [rent), n. khiz"; shi'"*; v. a. bikhzu", khaza"t, 

khzu'* p.p. makzu"; bkhazzi", khazza"t, khazzi" p.p. 

mkhazza"; bshi", sha""eyt, shi"" p.p. mesh"u" ; 

bimzu", meza"t, mzu" p.p. memzu". 
tease, v. a. biz'el, za'alt, zu'ul; b'azzib, *azzebt, 'azzib 

p.p. m'azzab. 
tedious, a. mut'ib; mumill. 
telegram, n. tilaghraf. 

telegraph, v. bdu"", da" "ait (da" "eyt) du"" (di"") ti- 
laghraf; — office, beyt at-tilaghraf; — pole, 'amud 

at-tilaghraf; — wire, shrit at-tilaghraf. 
telegraphist, n. tilaghrafji. 
telescope, n. nazzara (naddara). 
tell, V. bi"ul (bi"il), "ult ("ilt), "ul ("il) ila. 
temper, n. khul"; tab*a p. atb'a; bad te^nper n. hama"; 

khul"; good tempered, atb*a-uh leyyini ; tab'a-uh mlih ; 

bad tempered, atb'a-uh shirsi ; khur'uh daiyi" ; hot 

tempered, a. hami"; sahib khul". 
temperature, n. mizen al-harara. 
temple, n. heykel p. hiy^kil. 
temporary, a. mwa""at. 
tempt, V. a. bjerrib, jerrabt, jerrib. 
temptation, n. tijrubi p. tejerib. 


tenacious^ a. 'anid; mutmessik. 

tenant i n. muste'jir. 

tendency, n. meyl. 

tender, [offer] n. talab p. talbet cp. matalib a. rikhis ; tari. 

tent, n. khaimi p. khiyem (khiyem). 

tepid, a. fetir f. fetri. 

term, n. [delay] middi ; mihli; (condition) shart p. shurut; 

what are your terms, esh matlub-ak ; vtake terms with, 

V. a. bsherit (bsharit) sharatt, sherit (sharit). 
terrace, n. sath p. stub. 
terrible, a. h^yil (ha'il); mukhif. 
terrified, a. khaiyif. 
terrify, v. a. bfezz'a, fezz'at, fezz'a; bkhowwif, khow- 

waft, khowwif. 
territory, n. ard. 
terror, n. fez'a; khowf. 

test, n. imtihan ; v. a. bimtihin, imtahant, imtihin. 
testaynent, n. wasiyi p. owsiyi; Old Testament, at-towra; 

Nei.v Testament, al-injil. 
testimony, n. sheh^di. 

tether, n. twali; v. a. burbut, rabatt *al at-tvvali. 
text, n. metn; khulasa; [of the bible] mowdu'a. 
than, con. min. 
thank, v. a. bishkur, shakert, shkur; thank you, kettir 

khair-ak; eywah; sellim daiyat-ak [lit, may God 

preserve yonr hands], 
that, pro. haidak f. haidik (hidik); con. ann; iji order 

that, hatta (ta). 
thaiv, V. n. 3rd per. bidub, dab. 
theatre, n. tiyatro. 
thee, pro, suff. ak f. ik. 
theft, n. sir"a. 


theniy {their)y pro. stiff, hum (um). 
themselveSj pro. zet-hum. 
the?ty ad. b'adeyn ; sum. 
thence, ad. min hownik. 
theoryy n. hiliya p. hiliyat. 

there, ad. hownik (howniki); thereabouts, t3i''nha.n; there- 
fore, li zelik; bina'-in-'aleyh. 
thermometer, n. mizen al-harara ; termometre. 
they, pro. hum f. hinni; these, pro. howdi. 
thick, a. smik p. smak c. asmak; t-khin c. athkan; (of 

liquids) khatir c. akhtar; {tiot clear) m'akur. 
thief, n. haram p. haramiyi; seri" p. surra"; luss p. 

thigh, n. fakhad p. fkhad. 
thimble, n. kishtben p. keshetbin. 
thin, a. [of persons) nahif p. ni'hafa ; [lean) da'if c. ad'af 

p. da*af; {of paper) ra*'i"; {slender) refi'a c. arfa; 

{liquids) khafif p. khifaf. 
thing, n. shey (shi) p. eshiya ; things, n. p. awa'i (awe'i) ; 

think {of), V. biftikir, iftakert, iftikir (fi); v. n. bzunn, 

zannait, zunn. 
thirst, n. *atash. 
thirsty, a. *atshen. 
this, pro. haida f. haidi; (hai). 
thistle, n. hasaki p. hasak. 
thither, ad. ila hownik. 
thorn, n. showki (shoki) p. showk (shok). 
thoroughbred, a. asil; nejib; {of a horse) kehil. 
those, pro. haidolik. 
thou, pro. inta f. inti. 
thought, n. fikr p. afkar. 


thoughtful^ n. sahib fikr; {considerate) sahib m'aruf. 

thoughtless^ a. taiyish. 

thrash, v. a. [grain) bidrus, darast, drus; {beat) bidrub, 

darabt, drub. 
thread, n. khait, khitan. 
threat, n. tahdid p. tahdidat. 
threaten, v. a. bitaheddad, taheddedt, tahedded. 
threshingfloor, n. baider (beyder) p. biyedir. 
threshold, n. 'atabi p. 'ateb. 
throat, n, hal"; zerum. 
throne, n. 'arsh p. 'urush ; the patriarch^ s throne, kirsi 

through, pr. fi; throughout, min al-owwel il al-ekhir. 
throw, V. a. bishlah, shalaht, shlah; bilhush, lahasht, 

Ihush; birmi, rmait (rmeyt), rmi. 
thrush, n. simni p. simnet (simmun). 
thumb, n. bdhim p. bwehim; my thumb, behm-i. 
thunder, n. r'ad; v. n. (3rd per. f.) bitira'id, ra'adet. 
thunderbolt, n. za"a. 
Thursday, n. nahar (yowm) al-khamis. 
tJms, ad. haik (heyk). 
thy, pro. suff. ak f. ik. 
thyself, pro. zet-ak f. z^t-ik. 
tick, n. "radi p. "rad. 
ticket, n. wara"a p. owra" (wara"). 
tickle, V. a. bzekzik, zekzekt, zekzik. 
tide, n. medd. 
tidy, a. muretteb. 
tie, V. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut p.p. marbut; tie a knot, 

be'"ud, Vadt, 'u"ud p.p. m'a"ud. 
tier, n. taba"a. 
tiger, n. nimr p. nimura. 


tighty a. shedid p. shidad. 

tighteuy V. a. bshidd, sheddait, shidd p.p. meshdud. 

tile, n. "armidi p. "armid; (glazed) "ishani. 

timber y n. khasheb ; a piece of — , khashbi. 

tiniey n. wa"t ; zeman ; to be in time for (catch), v. a. 

bhassil, hassalt, hassil; iyi time (timely), fi wa"t-uh. 
timid, a. jeben. 
tin, n. tenek. 

tin-opener, n. [key] mifteh; [knife) sikkin. 
tinder, n. sufen. 
tinker, n. sankari. 
tinsel, n. shrit "assab. 
tip, n. ras; taraf. 
tipsy, a. sekran. 

tiptoe, on, ad. 'ala ras asabi'-uh. 
tire, V. a. (3rd per.) biyit'ib, ta'ab. 
tired, a. t'aben. 
tiresome, a. mut'ib. 
tissue paper, n. wara"leff. 
title, n. la'*ab p. ar'ab. 

title deed, n. sakk p. skuk; wara'*it tabu p. owra". 
tittle tattle, n. la"sh; 'alk. 
toast, n. khibz mhammas; v. (a health) bishrab, shribt, 

shrab sirr (with pro. suff.). 
tobacco, n. tutun ; dukhkhan ; (for the hubble bubble) 

to-day, ad. al-yowm (al-yom). 
toe, n. isb'a rijl (ijr) p. asab'i. 
together, ad. sawa; m'a ba'ad-hum. 
toil, n. kedd; t*ab. 
token, n. *al^mi. 
toll, n. baj ; resm baj. 


tomato, n. banadura. 

tofnb, n. "abr p. "ubur. 

to-morrow y ad. bukra ; ghadi ; the day after to-fuorroiUy 

b'ad bukra; b'ad ghadi. 
tongs, n. mer'at. 
tongue, n. lisen p. lisenet. 
tool, n. ali p. alet cp. awe'il; (eli p. elet). 
too-little, a. "alii ktir. 
too-miich, a. ktir; ad. bi ziedi. 
tooth, n. (front) sinn p. snen; (back) dirs p. diras; 

toothache, waj'a dirs; tooth-picky miswek; to draw 

teeth, V. a. bi'Ta, "al'at, i'Ta p.p. ma"lu'a; to stop 

teeth, V. a. bihshi, hashait, hshi p.p. mihshi. 
top, n. ras. 

topsy-turvy, ad. fu"ani tahteni. 
torrent, n. seyl p. siyul. 
tortoise, n. zilhfi p. zlehif. 
torture, n. 'azeb; v. a. b'azzib, 'azzebt, 'azzib p.p. 

toss, V. a. bzitt, zetteyt, zitt; v. a. bilhush, lahasht, 

total, n. mejmu'a; totally y ad. bil-killiyi; bij-jumli. 
tottery V. n. (3rd per.) biyihtez, ihtaz. 
touch, V. a. bid"ur, da"art, d"ur p.p. med"ur; bmiss, 

massait, miss; bilmus, lamast, Imus. 
touchstone, n. magnatis. 
touchy, a. hami"; sahib khul". 
tough, a. "asi; yebis. 
tour, n. dowra (dura); make a tour, v. n. bdur, durt, 

tourist, n. seyih (saiyih) p. suweh (suwah). 
tow, n. mesha"a; v. a. bjurr, jarrait, jurr. 


towards i pr. ila; sowb. 

towely n. manshfi p. mneshif. 

tower t n. birj p. abraj. 

towiiy n. {large) medini p. mudn; {small) beled. 

townsman^ n. ahl al-beled; fellow — , ibn beled. 

toy, n. I'ebi p. lu'ab. 

trace, n. asar (eter) p. asar (atar); {harness) jirrara p. 

track, n. {road) derb; {trace) asar (eter). 
tract (of land), n. "it'at ard. 
trade, n. tijara; metjr. 

traffic, n. {movement) 'ubur; {trade) tijara. 
train, n. tren; babor; {of camels) "itar p. "itarat; v. a. 

btabb'i, tabb'at, tabb'i p.p. mtabb'a; {exercise) bmar- 

rin, marrent, marrin p.p. mmarrin. 
traitor, n. khaiyin p. khaiyinin. 
transact, {business), v. a. b'amil, 'amilt, *amul ('amel) 

transfer v. a. bin"ul, na*'alt, n"ul p.p. men"ul. 
translate, v. a. bterjim, terjemt, terjim. 
translation, n. terjemi. 
translator, n. terjuman. 
transparent, a. sheffaf. 
transport, v. a. bin"ul, na'*alt, n'*ul p.p. men"ul; n. 

(freight) nowulun. 
trap, n. masiyadi. 

trappings (of a horse), n. selebend. 
travel, v. n. bsefir, sefert, s^fir. 
traveller, n. ms^fir p. ms^firin; seyih (saiyih) p. suw^h 

tray, n. s^niyj (sniyi) p. sw^ni. 
treachery (treason), n. khiy^ni. 


treadf n. d'asi; v. n. (to tread on), v. a. bid'as, da'ast, 

da'as [and with 'ala) p.p. mad'us. 
treadle f n. dosi. 
treasure^ n. kenz p. kunuz. 
treasurer, n. amin as-sandu". 
treasury, n. khazini. 

treat, v. a. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul (*amd). 
treatment, n. m'ameli. 
treaty, n. ma'ahedi. 
tree, n. shajara (sejara) p. ashjar. 
trellis, n. sh'ariyi. 
tremble, v. n. birjif, rjift, rj6f. 
trench, n. khenda" p. khnedi". 
/r^jj (of hair), n. jdili p. jede'il. 
trial, n. mahakemi; (/^j/) imtihan; tljrubi; on trial, *ala 

triangle, n. mtellet. 
/r/<^^, n. *'abili p. "abe'il; *ashiri p. 'ashe'ir; (of Israel), 

sibt p. asbat beni Israel. 
tribtmal, n. mahkemi p. mhakim; mejlis. 
tribute, n. jeziyi. 
trick, n. hili p. hiel ; to play a trick on — , v. b'amil, 

'amilt, 'amul ('amd) hili 'ala. 
trifle, n. shi zehid; it is a mere trifle, ma biyihriz. 
trigger, n. zunberak. 
trinket, n. hfliyi p. hila. 
trip, n. khatra; sefra. 
tripod, n. tlet rijleyn. 
Tripoli, Trablus ash-shem; [iyi Barbary) Trablus al- 

tritanph, n. nasr; triumphal arch, "ows an-nasr. 
troop, n. zumra p. zumr; troops, n. p. jnud; 'asker. 


troty n. rahf; v. n. (3rd per.) biyirhuf, rahaf. 

trouble, n. t'ab; (grief) hizn; to take trouble, v. be'atini, 

'etenet, e'atini (f i) ; to give trouble, v. a. bit'ub, ta'ebt, 

tu'ub; bte"'U ta""elt, te""il ('ala). 
troublesome, a. mut'ib. 
trough, n. jurn p. jran. 
trousers, n. bantalon. 
trousseau, n. sda"; jihaz. 
trowelf n. mara"a; lozi. 
truce, n. hidni. 

true, a. sahih; truly, ad. ha" "an. 
trutnpet, n. nefir; bu" p. abwa". 
trumps, n. atu. 
trunk, n. (of a tree) se" (sa") p. su" (si"an) ; (^^;»r) sandu" 

p. snedi". 
trust, V. bittikil, ittakelt, ittikil ('ala); busi", wasa"t(fi); 

b'emmin, eminent, emmin (ila); on trust, 'al am^ni. 
truth, n. sid"; ha"". 
try, V. a. bjerrib, jerrabt, jerrib. 
tub, n. tusht p. tshut; m'ajen p. ma'ajin. 
tube, n. anbubi p. anabib. 
Tuesday, nahar (yowm) at-tleti. 

tuft, n. (of hair) khusli p. khusl ; (plumage) "unbra. 
tug, n. babor (wabor) jerrar. 
tulip, n. khizemi p. khizem. 
tumble, V. n. bu"'a, wa" 'at, u"'a; (slip) be'ater, 'atert, 

tumbler, n. (glass) kibb^yi. 
tumour, n. waram p. owram. 
tune, n. naghmi; v. a. bduzin, dozant, dozin; in tune, 

a. mdozan. 
tunic, n. "amis p. "umsin. 


tunnely n. tunnell; "abu. 

turban^ n. leffi p. leffet. 

turf, n. n'as. 

Turkey, Turkiya ; beled al-'osmalli ; Turk, Turk p. atrak ; 
turkish, turki. 

turkey, n. dik habesh; turkey-hen, djejit habesh p. djej 

turn, n. dowra (dura); v. n. bdur, durt, dur; v. a. bdow- 
wir, dowwert, dowwir; — back, v. n. birj'a, rj'at 
(rj'et), rj*a (rje'a); v. a. brajj'i, rajj'at, rajj'a; — aside, 
V. n. bhid, hidt, hid; — off, v. a. bsidd, seddeyt, 
sidd p.p. mesdud; — on, v. a. biftah, fataht, ftah 
p.p. maftuh; — over, v. a. and n. bi"lub, "alabt, 
i"lub; — out, V. a. btall'i, tall'at, tall'i; v. n. {become), 
(3rd per.) bisir, sar; — round, v. n. biltifit, iltefett, 
iltifit; turuing round, n. fetli ; turning dervishes, fetlit 
derwish; turning point, n. madar; in turji, ad. bid- 
dowr (dor); bin-nowbi (nobi). 

turnip, n. lifti p. lift. 

turpentine, n. zeyt tirbentina. 

turquoise, n. firuz. 

turtle-dove, n. tirghalli p. tirghall. 

tutor, n. ma'allim. 

tweezers, n. mer'at sh*ara (shoki). 

twice, n. marrateyn. 

twig, n. tarbun p. trabin. 

twilight, n. shefa". 

twift, n. sha" "it towm p. towm (torn). 

twine, n. khait massis. 

twist, V. a. bitni, teneyt, tni p.p. mitni; (cord) biftul, 
fatalt, ftul p.p. maftul. 

two-edged, bi haddeyn. 


tyranyiy^ n. ziilum; jowr. 
tyrantf n. zalim p. zullem. 


uddery n. dirri. 

ugliness, n. bshe'a; "ubh. 

ugly, a. bish'i f. bish'a; "abih. 

ulcer, n. "arha. 

ultimate, a. niheyi; ekhir. 

ultimatum, n. belagh resmi. 

umbrella, n. shemsiyi p. shemesi. 

umpire, n. hakam p. muhakkemin. 

ufiatiimous, a. muttefi'*; unanimously, ad. bil-ittifa". 

unarmed, p.p. ma msellah; ad. bila sleh. 

unawares, ad. *ala ghafli. 

unbecomirig a. (of dress) ma lebi"; (improper) ma leyi'*. 

unbeliever, n. kefir p. kafara. 

unbind, v. a. bhill, halleyt, hill p.p. mahlul. 

unbounded, ma luh hadd. 

unburied, p.p. ghair (ma) medfun ; {animals) ghair (ma) 
matmum; ad-bila defn. 

uncertain, a. ghair m*ekked ; p.p. ma mesbut ; (of tem- 
per) a. muta"allib; / am uncertain, ana murteb. 

uncivil, a. khishin; fazz. 

uncivilised, a. mutawahhish. 

uncle, n. (paternal) 'amm p. *am^m ('amam); (maternal) 
khal p. khw^li. 

unclean, a. wfsikh. 

uncomfortable, a. mut'ib. 


uncommon, a. nedir. 

unconcerned, a. ghair miktiris; to be — , v. ma biktiris, 

iktarast (fi). 
unconditional, ad. bila shart. 

tincover, v. a. bikshuf, kesheft, kshuf (kshef) p.p. makshuf. 
uncultivated, (land), n. bur. 
uncut, a. sahih; p.p. ma ma"sum; (of grass) p.p. ma 

undecided, a. muteredded. 
under, pr. taht. 
mider ground, ad. taht al-ard. 
underhand, ad. min taht li taht. 
underneath, pr. taht. 

under sigjied, n. al-mumdi; al-wad'i ism-uh. 
understand, v. a. bifham, fahimt, fham p.p. mafhum. 
tindertake^ v. b"um, "umt ("imt), "um (bi). 
undertaking, n. meshru'a. 
undesirable, a. ghair meshkur. 
undo, (vide unbiftd, untie), 
undoubtedly , ad. bidun shubhi (shekk). 
undress (oneself), v. a. bishlah, shalaht, shlah at-tyeb; 

bi'Ta, "al'at, i"l'a at-tyeb ; [another) v. a. bshellih, 

shellaht, shellih at-tyeb; bi"airi, "all'at, "all'i at-tyeb. 
uneasy, a. meshghul al-bel; fikr-uh mush (mau) murteh. 
unequal, mush (mau) "add ba'ad-hum. 
uneven, mush (mau) sehili. 
unexampled, ma luh metil (mesil). 
U7iexpected, a. ghair muntazar. 
unfair a. mush (mau) 'adil. 
unfavourable, a. ma'akis. 
Mifinished, a. mush (mau) khalis. 
unfit, a. mush (mau) leyi". 


unfold (unfurl), v. a. binshur, neshert, nshur p.p. menshur. 

unforseen, a. ghair muntazar. 

unfortunatey a. ta'is; "alii al-bakht. 

unfurnished^ p.p. ma mafrush. 

u?igrateful, a. jehid (jahid) ; nekir aj-jemil. 

unhappyy a. maghmum. 

unharness, v. a. bshellih, shellaht, shellih; bfikk, fekkait, 

fikk p.p. mafkuk. 
unhealthy, a. mdurr (mdirr) bi sihha; hawa-h 'aatil. 
uniform^ n. bedli resmiyi. 
uniformly, ad. 'ala nesa" wehid. 
unimportafit, a. ghair muhimm. 
unintentionally, ad. bila "asd. 
uninterrupted, a. de'im; p.p. ma min"ut*a. 
uninterruptedly , (at one go), ad. ferd sahabi. 
uninvited, ad. bila 'azimi. 
union, n. itihad. 
united, a. muttehid; United States of America, dX-^WdAyit 

universal, a. *umumi. 
universe, the, n. al-kown (kon). 
university, n. medresit 'umumiyi. 
unjust, a. mush (mau) 'adil. 
unkind, a. "asi ; mush (mau) hanuni. 
unlawful, a. mush (mau) jeyiz. 
unleavened, a. ftir. 
unless, con. iza; ma; low la. 
unlike, a. mukhtilif. 
unlimited, p.p. ma mahdud. 
unload, v. a. bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil ('an) ; bhutt, hattait, 

hutt ('an) ; [of ships) bferrigh, ferraght, ferrigh ('an). 
unlocked, p.p. ma ma'*ful; ma mda""r. 


unlucky i a. "alii al-hazz. 

unmarried^ a. 'azeb f. 'azba ; [of priests) betul. 

U7inatural, a. ghair tabi'i. 

unnecessary^ a. mush (mau) lezim (daruri). 

unofficial, a. ghair resmi. 

unpack, V. a. bfaddi, faddait, faddi; bferrigh, ferraght, 

tmpaid, p.p. ma madfu'a. 
unpleasant, a. mush (mau) murdi. 
imprejiidiced, a. 'adil. 
unprofitable, a. mush (mau) mufid (nefi). 
unreasonable, a. mush (mau) m'a"ul. 
unripe, a. fejj; p.p. ma mistwi. 
unsafe, a. khutir; muktir. 
unsatisfactory, a. mush (mau) murdi. 
unseemly, a. mush (mau) leyi". 
unshod, a. hafi p.p. mhaffa. 
unsound, a. m'aiyub; mush (mau) sagh. 
unsteady, a. ghair sebit. 
unsuitable, a. mush (mau) mwefi". 
untidy, a. ghair muretteb (mhendam). 
untie, V. a. bfikk, fekkait, fikk p.p. mafkuk. 
until, con. hatta ma; ilia. 
tmtimely, ad. mush fi wa"t-uh. 

untouched, a. sahih; p.p. ma memsuk; ma med"ur. 
untrained, a. jeleb; p.p. ma mtabb'a. 
imtried, p.p. ma mjerrab. 
untrue, a. ghair sahih. 
untruth, n. kizbi. 
untruthful, a. kezzeb. 
unusual, a. gharib. 
unwell, a. mush (mau) mabsut; 'aiyyen. 


uyiivilling, a. mush (mau) radian (radi). 

unwillingly, ad. ghasb *an-nuh. 

U7izuise, a. jehil p. juhhel. 

unworthy, a. mush (mau) leyi'* (ahl). 

up to (fit for), kharj al-maslaha; he is not up to the 

work, mush (mau) kharj al-maslaha. 
uphill, ad. ila fow'*; fi tal'a. 

uphold (afi opinion), v. n. bwefi", wafa"t 'ala fikr-uh. 
upon, pr. 'ala. 
upper, a. fu"ani ; *ulwi. 
upper hand, the, n. al-ghalib. 
uppermost, the, n. al-a'ala. 
upright, a. we"if; dughri; j^lis. 
upset, V. a. bi"lub, "alabt, i"lub; {liquids) bkibb, keb- 

beyt, kibb; (fig.) (y^ per.) bi'akker, 'akker; the news 

upset me, al-khaber 'akker-ni. 
upside down, ad. fu"ani tahteni. 
upstairs, ad. fow'*. 
urge, V. a. bhitt, hattait, hitt; v. bharrij, harrajt, 

harrij ('ala). 
urgent, a. dirik f. dirki ; mulihh. 
urine, n. bowl. 
us, pro. suff. na. 
usage, n. 'adi ; ist'emel. 
use, n. nefa ; fe'idi ; v. a. bista'mil, sta'melt, sta'mil p.p. 

musta*mel; to be of use, v. n. (3rd per.) biyiswa; 

biyinf*a; use up, v. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; 

bfaddi, faddait, faddi. 
useful, a. mufid. 
useless, ad. bila fe'idi; 'abes. 

usual, a. *itiyadi ('atiyedi); usually, ad. ghaliben. 
usury, n. riba; faiyiz. 



Utensil, n. we'a (wa'a) p. awe'i. 

utmost, the, a. al-aktar; to do one's utmost, v. a. b'amil, 
'amilt jehd-i; do your utmost, 'amul ('amel) jehd-ak. 


vacancy, n. fragh; mahall ferigh. 

vacant, a. fadi ; ferigh. 

vacate, v. a. bfaddi, faddait, faddi; bferrigh, ferraght, 

vaccinate, v. a. bta'im, ta'amt, ta'im. 
vaccination, n. tat'im. 
vagabond, a. battal. 
vague, a. mubhem. 
vain, a. she'if (sha'if) hal-uh; mu'ijib bi nefs-uh; in vain, 

ad. batilan; 'abes. 
valid, a. sher'i; sahih. 
valley, n. wedi p. widian. 
valuable, a. temin. 
value, n. temen ; v. a. btemmin, temment, temmin p.p. 

valve, n. birghi. 

vanish, v. n. (3rd per.) bizul, zal. 
vanity, n. butl. 
vapour, n. bukhar. 
variable, a. muta"allib; mutaghaiyir. 
variety, n. p. shikel; anw'a. 
various, a. mutnoww'i; mukhtilif. 
varnish, n. vernish. 
vary, v. a. bghaiyir, ghaiyert, ghaiyir; v. n. bitghaiyir, 



vase^ n. we 'a (wa*a) p. awe'i. 

vasti a. fasih; wes'i. 

vaulty n. "abu p. u"bwi; [tomb) "abr p. "ubur. 

vaulted, a. me"bi. 

veal, n. lahm 'ijl. 

vegetables {vegetation)^ n. khudra. 

veily n. mendil p. menedil; womatCs white veil, izar p. 

veiled, p.p. miyezzer; mghatta. 
vein, n. 'ir** p. 'iru'*. 
vellum, n. ri" ". 
velvet, n. makhmal. 
venerable, a. muhteram; wa"ur. 
venerate, v. a. behtirim, ihtaramt, ihtirim. 
vengeance, n. inti"am. 
venison, n. lahm said. 
venom, n. semm. 
venomous, a. msimm; sam. 

ventilate, v. a. bhowwi, howwait, howwi p.p. mhowwa. 
ventilation, n. tehwiyi. 
ventilator, n. nefida p. nawefid. 
venture, n. {chance) sudfi p. sidaf; fursa p. furas; (risk) 

khatr; mukhatera; v. bkhatir, khatert, khatir (fi). 
Venus, zahra ; [Queen of Beauty) melekit al-husn. 
veranda, n. rw^" p. rwe"at. 
verb, n. f'^l p. af'al. 
verbal, a. shifehi ; bil-lisen. 
verbatim, ad. harfi bi harf. 
verdigris, n. jinzar. 
verification, n. tah"i". 
verify, V. a. bha'*"i", ha" "a"t, ha" "i". 
vermin, n. p. hashrat. 


verse, n. beyt p. abiyet. 

very, ad. ktir. 

vespers, n. salat al-ghurub. 

vessel, n. we'a (wa'a) p. awe'i; (ship) merkeb p. merakib. 

vest, n. *'amis 'adi (tahteni). 

vestibule, n. dehliz. 

vestige, n. eter (asar) p. atar (asar); resm. 

vestmeyit, n. bedli p. bedlet; hilli p. hi'lel. 

veterinary surgeon, n. beytar p. beyatara ; tabib al-kheyl. 

vex, V. a. bkeddir, keddert, keddir. 

vexation, n. keder. 

vibration, n. ihtizez. 

vibrate, v. n. (3rd per.) biyihtez, ihtez. 

vicar, n. ne'ib (na'ib); wekil. 

vice, n. rezeli p. reze'il; [tool] melzemi. 

viceroy, n. wali (w^li). 

vicious, a. razil (rizil) p. arzal. 

victim, n. ferisi. 

victor, n. ghalib p. ghalibun. 

victory, n. ghaleba; nasr. 

victuals, n.p. me'kuldt. 

view, n. manzar p. manazir; (opinion) rai v. bitferrij, 

tferrajt, tferraj 'ala. 
vigil, n. beramun. 
vigilajice, n. intibeh. 
vigilant, a. nebih. 
vigour, n. "uwi; neshat. 
vigorous, a. "owi p. awaiya; neshit (nishit^. 
vile, a. razil (rizil). 
village, n. dai'a (dey'a) p. di'a 
villager, n. fellah p. fellahin. 
villaiji, a. sherrir; khabis 


villainyy n. sherr. 

vindictive, a. ha"ud. 

vine, n. *arishi p. 'arai'ish (ursh); daliyi p. dawali. 

viyiegaVy n. khall. 

vineyard, n. kerm p. kurum. 

vintage, n. "itaf. 

violate (a promise), v. a. bin"ud, na"adt, nu'*ud kelem 

p.p. men"ud; bis-hab, sahabt, is-hab kelem; (ravish) 

V. a. bifdah, fadaht, p.p. f. mafduha. 
violence, n. shiddi; "uwi. 
violent, a. shiris. 

violet, n. bnefsaji p. bnefsaj; — colour, lown bnefsaji. 
violin, n. kamenja. 
viper, n. afa p. afe'i. 
virgin, n. bikr p. abkar ; 'adra p. *adara; the holy virgin. 

virtue, n. fadili. 
virtuous, a. fadil p. afadil. 
visible, a. wadih; zahir. 
visit, n. ziyara p. ziyarat; v. a. bzur, zirt, zur; visit a 

sick person, v. bshi"'*, sha""eyt, shi"" ('ala). 
visiting-card, n. wara'*a p. wara". 
visitor, n. zeyir p. zuwwar; (guest) daif (deyf) p. 

vitriol, n. zaj. 
vizier, n. wezir p. wuzera. 
vocabulary, n. "amis p. "awamis. 
voice, n. sowt p. aswat. 
void, a. khali. 

volcano, n. burken p. berakin; jebel nSr. 
volley, n. tala*'. 
volume, n. mjellad p. mjellad^t; (mass) mi"dar. 


voluntarily, ad. bil-ikhtiyar ; tow'an wa ikhtiyaran. 

voluntary, a. ikhtiyari. 

volunteer, n. mutatow'i. 

vomit, V. a. braj'i, raj'at, raj'a; bintu", nata"t, ntu". 

vote, n. sowt p. aswat; v. n. bsowwit, sowwatt, sowwit. 

vow, n. nezr; v. n. binzur, nazert, nzur. 

vowel, n. hareki p. hareket. 

voyage, n. s^fer p. asfar. 

vulgar, a. derij ; {low) dun ; a vulgar wo^nan, mara dun. 

vulture, n. a"ab p. u"b^n. 


wad, n. (cardboard) kartun (karton) ; (felt) karton libbed ; 
V. a. bihshi, hashait, hashait, hshi p.p. mihshi. 

wadding, n. hashwi. 

wafer, n. birsh^ni p. birshen. 

wager, n. rahn p. ruhuni. 

wages, n. ujra (ijra); ma'ash. 

ivaggon, n. karro p. karrat; tumberu p. tmabir. (tunber 
p. tnabir. 

wainscot, n. hala*'a. 

waist, n. wast; khasr. 

waistcoat, n. sidriyi p. sidari. 

wait, V. n. bisbur, sabert, sbur ; wait for, v. a. bintizir, 
intazert, intizir; bintur, natart, ntur; / am waitiiig 
for you, ana muntizir-ak; ana natir-ak; wait upon 
(serve), v. a. bikhdum (bukhdum), khadamt, khdum. 

waiter, n. sufraji. 


wake, V. n. bfi", fi"t, fi"; v. a. bfeyyi", feyya^'t feyyi"; 

bwa' 'i, wa' 'ait, wa' 'i. 
walk, n. shimm al-hawa ; mishwar ; v. n. bimshi, mshit, 

mshi; walk about, v. a. bmeshshi, meshshait. meshshi. 
walking, n. meshi. 
walkingstick, n. 'asa p. 'usi. 
wall, n. [of a house) hait p. hitan; (of a town) sur p. 

as war (swar). 
wallet, n. kis p. kyes; leathern wallet, jirab. 
walnut, n. jowzi p. jowz; walnut-tree, jowzi. 
wander, v. n. bjul, jilt, jul; bdur, durt, dur. 
wafit, n. ihtiyej; 'azi; v. a. bihtej, ihtajt; b'iiz, 'izt. 
war, n. harb p. hurub; they are at war, 'amm biyita- 

harabu; beyn-hum harbj to declare war, bish-hur, 

shahert, sh-hur al-harb. 
ward, n. "asir p. "ussar. 
warder, n. sejjen. 
wardrobe, n. khizenit tyeb. 
warehouse, n. makhzen p. makhazin. 
wares, n. bda'a p. badaiy'i. 
warm, a. (of the body) defien; (places) defic. a.dia,; (food) 

sukhn; v. a. bsakhkhin, sakhkhant, sakhkhin p.p. 

warmth, n. defa. 

warn, v. n. bnebbih, nebbeht; nebbih. 
warning, n. tenbih. 

warship, n. merkeb harbi p. merakib harbiyi. 
wart, n. teluli p. tawalil. 
wash, the^ n. al-ghasil; v. a. bghassil, ghasselt, ghassil; 

V. n. bightisil, ightaselt, ightisil; wash grain, v« a. 

bsowwil, sowwelt, sowwil p.p. msowwal. 
washerwoman, n. ghass^li. 


ivash-house, n. beyt al-ghasil. 

washing, the, n. al-baiyad. 

wasp, n. zur"ta (zuF'ta) p. zara'*it. 

waste, n. israf; b'aza"a; v. a. bib'azi", b'aza'*t, b'azi" p.p. 

mb*aza"; (money) bideddir, beddert, beddir; [things) 

bitluf, teleft, tluf p.p. metluf; {tijne) browwih, row- 

waht, rowwih; bdaiy'i, daiy*at al-wa"t. 
watch, n. se'a p. se'at; v. a. bra"ib, ra"abt, ra"ib; 

(guard) bihrus, harast, hrus. 
watchful, a. muntibih. 
watchman, n. haris p. hurras. 
watchword, n. sirr al-leyl. 
water, n. mai; riiyming — , mai jeriyi; stagnant — , mai 

rakdi; drinking — , mai li shirb; fresh — , mai hilwi; 

salt — , mai melha; cold — ■, mai berdi; tepid — , mai 

fetri; hot — , mai sukhni; boiling — , mai ghaliyi; 

spring of water, *ain p. *uyun; neb*a; to pass — , 

bibowwil, bowwelt, bowwil. 
watercolour, n. lown mai. 
waterfall, n. shellel (sheleli). 
watering-pot, n. reshsheshi ; mreshshi. 
waterproof, n. mshemm'a. 
waterworks, n. kombaniyit al-mai. 
wave, n. mowji p. amwej. 
waver, v. n. bitreddad, treddadt. 
wax, n. sham*a. 
way, n. derb p. drub; tari" p. tiiru"; i?i my way, bi 

we, pro. nahn (nahna). 
weak, a. da'if p. da'af c. ad'afj 'aiyyen; the weak, 



weakat, v. a. bda'if, da'aft, da'if; bi"ellil, "allelt, "ellil 

weak?iessy n. du'af. 
wealthy n. ghi'na; serwi. 

weauj V. a. biftum, fatamt, ftumi p.p. maftum. 
weaning y n. ftami. 

weapoUy n. sleh (slah) p. esliha; a weapon^ "it'a sleh. 
weary v. a. bilbus, Ibist, ilbus; wear otit, v. a. bihri, 

herait p.p. mihri; v. n. (3rd per.) biyihtiri, ihtara p.p. 

wearisome, a. mut'ib. 

weary, a. t'aben v. a. (31^^ per.) biyit'ib, ta'ab. 
weather, n. ta"s. 

weathercock, n. duleb (dulab) hawa p. dwelib. 
weave, v. a. bhaiyyik, haiyyekt, haiyyik p.p. mhaiyyak. 
web (spiders), n. nesij al-'ankebut; beyt ar-rtaila. 
wedding, n. 'urs p. 'aras. 
wedge, n. sfin p. asefin. 
Wednesday , nahar (yowm) al-arb'a. 
weed, n. 'ushb ('ishb) berri p. ash^b berriyi. 
week, n. jim'a p. jim'a. 
weep, V. n. bibki, bakit, bki. 
weigh, V. a. buzin, wezent, uzfn p.p. mowzun ; it weighs 

so and so, wazn-uh keza wa keza. 
weight, n. wazn; [of a scale) 'iyar p. 'iyarat. 
welcome, ad. ahla u sahla; yoic are welcome, anast. 
well, n. bir p. biyara; a. mabsut; ad. taiyib; mlih; 

well done, ad. aferim; get well, v. n. bit'afa, ta'afeyt, 

ta'afa; bsuhh, sahhait, suhh. 
well-bred, a. asil; kahail (kaheyl). 
well-off, a. meysiir. 
west, the, n. al-gharb; western, a. gharbi. 


wet, a. mbellel; v. a, bbiil, bellait (belleyt), bill p.p. 

meblul; to be wet, binbell, inbelleyt; bitbellel, tbellelt. 
whale, n. hut p. hiten. 
wharf, n. bunt; wharfage dues, ardiyi. 
what, pro. esh; shO; whatever, eshma; mahma. 
wheat, n. "amh; hinta. 
wheatmeal, n. tahin. 

wheel, n. duleb (duUb) p. dSwelib; water-wheel, na'ura. 
wheel-barrow, n. 'ajilit id. 
when, ad. aimtin; aimta (eymta); con. limma; 'indama; 

halma; wa"t illi; whenever, ay wa"t; wa"t illi. 
where, ad. weyn ; feyn ; [whither) liweyn (leyn) ; {whence) 

mineyn (min weyn) ; whereabouts, weyn ; feyn ; whereas, 

hais (heys) ; li Icon ; wlierever, weyn ma ; whether or 

not, iia. ow la ; keyf ma ken ; 'ala kuU hal. 
which, inter, pro. esh; shu; ay; which one, ay wehid; 

eni ; relat. pro. illi (halli) ; whichever, illi (halli). 
while, con. limma; beynama. 
whip, n. *'amshi ; kirbesh. 
whirlpool, n. dowwara; derdiir. 
whirlwind, n. zowba'a (zoba'a). 
whisper, n. washwashi ; v. a. bwashwish, washwasht, 

wash wish {and with ila). 
whistle, n. sufaira (sufeyra) p. swefir; v. n. bsowfir, 

sowfert, sowfir; bsaffir, saffert, saffir, 
whistling, n. saffir. 
white, a. abyad f. baida (bey da). 
whitewash, n. tarsh; v. a. butrush, tarasht, trush. 
who (whom), inter, pro. min; (whose) li min; relat. pro. 

illi (halli); whoever, kill min; eymin. 
whole, the, n. al-kill; a. sahih; kemil. 
wholesale, n. bey'a bij-jumH. 


wholesome, a. suhhi. 

whooping cough, n. sheh"a. 

why, ad. lesh. 

wick, n. ftili p. fte'il. 

wicked, a. sherrir. 

wickerwork, n. khaizeran ; a. mkhaizeran. 

wide, a. *arid; wes*i. 

widen, v. a. bwass'a, wass*at, wass'i p.p. mwass'a. 

widow, n. armeli p. aramil; widower, armel. 

width, n. *ard. 

wife, n. mara; zowji; [mo stem) hurmi; my wife, mert-i ; 

bint *amm-i; hurmt-i. 
wig, n. sh'ar 'aiyeri. 

wild, a. berri; wild beast, n. wahsh p. wuhush. 
wilderness, n. shol. 
wilful, a. 'anid. 
will, n. khatir ; iradi ; (testament) wasiyi p. owsiyi ; make a 

will, V. bwassi, wassait, wassi ; b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul wasiyi. 
willing, a. radi; raiyid; God willing, inshallah. 
willow, n. sufsafi p. sufsaf; weeping willow, sufsaf mist-hi. 
win, V. a. birbah, rbiht, irbah ; v. n. bfuz, fizt, fuz. 
wind, n. hawa p. ehwiyi; (strong wind) rih p. rieh 

(riah); v. a. (to roll) bliflf, leffeyt, lifif p.p. melfuf; 

(a watch) bdowwir, dowwert, dowwir p.p. mdowwer. 
windfall, n. la"iyi. 
winding, a. ma'arwaj ; wijidings (of road or river) leftet 

u 'owjat. 
window, n. shubb^k p. shb6bik. 
wine, n. imbid ; khamr. 

wineglass, n. **adah p. **d^h ("dah); k^s p. kesdt. 
winepress, n. m*5sera p. ma'Ssir. 
wing, n. j^nih (jinih) p. jwenih. 


wink, n. ghamaz; v. n. bighmuz, ghamazt, ghmuz; wink 

atf (overlook) bghudd, ghaddait, ghudd nazr 'an. 
winner y n. ribhan; ghalib p. ghalibun. 
winnow, v. a. bderri, derreyt, derri p.p. mderra. 
winnowing shovel, n. midraiyi. 
wijiter, n. shita; to spend the winter, v. n. bshetti, shet- 

teyt, shetti ; the season of zuinter, n. shltwiyi. 
wipe, V. a. bimsah, masaht, msah; {dry) bnashshif, 

nashshaft, nashshif. 
wire, n. shrit. 
wisdom, n. hikmi. 
wise, a. *a"il. 
wish, n. iradi; v. a. and n. brid, ridt, rid; v. n. bit- 

menna, tmennait, tmenna. 
wit, n. zeka (zika). 
with, pr. m'a. 
withdraw, v. a. bisterj'i, sterj'at, sterj'i; bis-hab, sahabt, 

wither, v. n. (3rd per.) biyidbal, dibil; biyibes, yibis; 

zvithered, debblen; yebis. 
withers, n. kitf. 
within, n. juwwa; pr. dekhil. 
without, pr. bidun; bila (bela); con. bidun ma; (outside) 

n. berra; pr. kherij. 
withstand, v. a. b"ewim, "evvamt, "ewim. 
witness, n. shehid p. shuhud. 
witty, a. zeki (ziki). 
wolf, n. dib p. diyeb. 

woman, n. mara p. niswen; hurmi p. harim. 
womb, n. rahm p. arham. 

wonder, n. 'ajab; ivonder at, v. n. bit'ajjab, t'ajjebt (min). 
wonderful, a. 'ajib. 


wd'ntj I wd'nt, ma bedd-i (bidd-i) ; ma brid ; it wo*nt do^ 

ma biyiswa; ma biyinfa. 
wood, n. (for building) khasheb; (for fuel) hatab. 
wood cock, n. djejit ard p. djej ard. 
wooden, min khasheb. 
wool, n. suf p. aswaf. 
word, n. kilmi p. kilmet c.p. kelem ; word for word, 

kilmi bi kilmi; i7i a word, hi kilmi wehdi; al-hasil; 

word of comma?id, amr p. awemir ; to give one's word, 

V. n. bu*id, wa*adt, wu'id (wu'ud) ; to keep ones word, 

V. a. behfaz, hafazt, hfaz al-w'ad ; to break one's word, 

V. a. biksur, kesert al-w'ad. 
work, n. shighl (shughl); work of art, shighl da"i"; 

hard zvork, shighl sha""; kedd; v. n. bishtighil, 

shtaghalt, shtighil; at work, meshghul; fi shighl. 
workman, n. fe'il (fa'il) p. fa'ali. 
workshop, n. dikken p. dekekin. 
world, the, n. al-'alam; ad-dunia (ad-diniyi). 
worm, n. dudi p. dud; susi p. sus. 
worvieaten, to be, v. n. (3rd per. bisowwis, sowwas p.p. 

worry, n. t*ab; "ala"; v. a. bdajjir, dajjert, dajjir. 
worse, a. irda; the worst, al-arda. 
worship, n. 'ibedi. 
worth, to be, v. n. (3rd per.) biyiswa; what is it worth? 

shu biyiswa; "add esh *'imt-uh. 
worthless, ad. bila '*imi. 
worthwhile, to be, v. n. (3rd per.) biyihriz. 
worthy, a. mustahi*'"; ahl. 
would that, inshallah. 
wound, n. jurh p. juruh (juruha); v. a. bijrah, jeraht, 

jrah p.p. mejruh; to be wounded, binjerah, injeraht. 


woven (stuffs)y n. p. mensujet. 

wrap (up), V. a. bliff, leffeyt, liff p.p. melfuf. 

wrapper, n. lefefi p. lefe'if j ghlef (ghlaf). 

wreathy n. iklil p. ekelil. 

wrecked, to be, v. n. (3rd per.) biyinkisir, inkesar. 

wrestle [with], v. n. bsar'i, sar'at, sar'i (m'a). 

wrestling, n. msara'a. 

wretched, a. ta'is; meskin. 

wrinkle, n. j'adi p. j*adet. 

wrinkled, p.p. mja'ad. 

wrist, n. resigh, p. arsegh. 

write, V. a. biktub, katabt, ktub p.p. maktub. 

writer, n. ketib. 

writing, n. kitebi. 

wrong, n. darar p. adrar; v. a. bdurr, darrait, durr, p.p. 
madrur ; to be wronged, bindarr, indarrait ; a. mukhti ; 
you are wrong, al-ha'"* 'aleyk; inti mukhti; it is 
wrong, haram; mush jeyiz; this is wrong, haidi ghalat. 


yacht, n. yakht. 

yard, n. (conrt) dar p. dur; (measure) zer'; pik (27 inches), 

yarn, n. ghazl. 

yawn (yawning), n. mtewabi; v. n. btewab, tewabt, 

year, n. sini p. snin; *am p. *awam; the new year, sfni 
jdidi; new year's day, ras as-sini ; last year, sint al- 
madi; 'am al-owwel; year by year, sini b'ad sini. 

yearly, a. senewi; ad. senewiyen. 

yeast, n. khamiri. 


yelloWy a. asfar f. safra p. sufr. 

yes, ad. (superior to inferior), ey; ey wah ; (inferior to 

superior, and also more politely) n'am ; ey n'am. 
yesterday, ad. imbereh ; the day before yesterday, owwelt 

yet, ad. b*ad ; not yet, lissa ma. 
yield, v. n. bikhd'a, khad'at, khd'a; bsellim, sellemt, 

sellim p.p. msellem. 
yoke (for oxen), n. nir p. niyara. 
you, pro. intum ; you (your) pro. suff, kum ; polite form 

of address, hadrat-ak. 
young, a. zghir p. zghar; fiti f. fitiyi; n. [of an animal) 

jeru p. ijriyi; youftg man, shebb p. shibben; young 

woman, sabiyi p. sabaiya. 
yourself, (yourselves), pro. zet-kum. 
youth, n. ftuwa; aiyem as-siba. 

Zanzibar, zenjebar. 

zeal, n. ghiri. 

zealous, a. ghaiyur. 

zenith, n. owj. 

zero, n. sifr. 

zest, n. shehiyi. 

zigzag, a. ma'arwaj. 

zinc, n. tutia. 

zodiac, n. minta*'at al-buruj; signs of the zodiac, aA-huTuj. 

zone, n. mfnta"a. 





Ordinary phrases. niukalemet. 

Good morning; good night, nahr-ak sa'id; leylt-ak sa'idi. 

(nahr-ak sa'id mbarek). 
How are you? goodbye. keyf hal-ak; khatir-ak (bi 

izn-ak) ; m'as-salemi. 
Excuse me, give me that, la twakhiz-ni, haida il-li *ati- 

it is mine. ni yah. 

I cannot understand you, 'ammel tist'ajil u ma li 'am- 
you speak too fast. m^l i"dir ifham minnak. 

Please repeat what you said, inkan bt'amil m*aruf t'id illi 

Please speak slowly. *amel m'aruf hki 'ala mahl- 

Can you talk English, bt'arif tihki inklizi, fransewi. 

French ? 
Write it down please. ktib-ha 'amel m'aruf. 

What do you mean ? I do shu m'anat-ak, ma li fahman 
not know what you say. shu 'ammel t"ul. 



Very well ; thank you. I am 
much obliged to you. 

Never mind, it does not 

I am very sorry you are 

going (that you went). 
Please tell me your name. 

Where do you live? 
What o'clock is it? 
When do you leave for 

Take care driver; go slowly; 

go faster; stop. 

Turn to the right, to the left. 
Go on ; wait here till I return. 
Return for me at 1 1 o'clock 

p. m. 
How far is it? 
Tell him to come and see 

me to-day. 
Tell her not to buy the 

I told them to tell you that 

I was out. 
Did they tell you to tell 

me that ? 
I told the tailor to make 

me a coat. 

ktir mlih ; kettir khair-ak ; 
ana ktir memnun-ak; (ana 
ghari"t 'a Itaf-ak) lit: I am 
drowned in your kindness, 

ma biseyl. 

ana ktir z'alen 'ala rewah-ak 

(illi ruht). 
btahubb tkellif khatir-ak wa 

t"il-li shu ism-ak. 
weyn (feyn) sekin. 
"add esh as-se'a. 
eymta bidd-ak ttsherrif lish- 

dir bel-ak ya 'arabaji; mshi 

'ala mahl-ak (su" shwayi 

shwayi); st'ajil; wa""if. 
'a yemin-ak, 'a shimal-ak. 
su"; ntur hon hatta irj'a. 
rj'a la 'and-i se'a hid'ash 

min 'ashiyi. 
"add esh biyibe'id min hon. 
"ul-luh yiji yishuf-ni al-yom. 

(f.) "uli-la la tishtri aj-jurnel. 

"ilt-il-lum ta y"ulu-lak in-ni 
kintberrat al-beyt (ghaiyib). 
"alu-lak ta t"ul-li heyk. 

"ilit lil-khaiyyat y'amil-li 



She told the groom not to 

ride the horse. 
He said you were going to 

church and not to the 

I am sorry he has gone 

I am glad he has come to 

see me. 
I wanted to see you yes- 
Tell her to tell the cook 

to cook the meat I gave 

him last night. 

I beat him well because 
he did not come when I 
called him. 

I dismissed my servant be- 
cause he would not do 
what I told him. 

If you do not do what I 
tell you I shall have to 
look for some one else. 

I did not let him go on 
the journey. 

I am very late I must go 
home at once. 

You ought not| to have 
done so without my leave. 

I saw the soldiers coming 
from the barracks. 

"alet lis-sa'is in-nuh ^la yir- 

keb al-hisan. 
"al in-nak raih lil-kenisi 

wa mau lis-su". 

ana z'al^n (zi'ilt) illi rah 

ana inbasatt illi ija yishuf-ni. 

kint bidd-i ishuf-ak imbereh. 

"ul-la t"ul lil-ashji ta yishwi 
(yitbukh) al-lahm illi 'atait- 
uh yah imbereh min 'as- 

darabt-uh ktir li kun wa"t 
illi nadaht il-luh ma ija. 

''al'at (shahatt) khiddem-i 

li kun illi "ilt-il-luh yah 

ma kan y'amil-uh. 
iza kint ma bt'amil illi bi"il- 

lak yah bfettish 'ala 

ma khallait-uh yisefir. 

ana t'owwa"t ktir lazim 
ruh 'al-beyt halla". 

ma kan lazim tsawi heyk 
bila izn-i. 

shuft al-'asker jei min al- 



I heard the military band 

playing in the street. 
When I entered the house 

I smelt a disgusting smell. 
As soon as you have finished 

the work I gave you, 

•tell me. 
Directly you arrive go and 

see him. 
I can no longer bear him. 

Close the door which leads 

into the garden. 
I should have been glad to 

have seen you yesterday. 
I hoped you would have 

come last week. 
He was well the last time 

I saw him. 
As soon as he comes send 

him to me. 
I recollected it when it was 

too late. 

sma'at al-'asker 'ammel 
idu" "al-musika fid-derb. 

wa"t illi fitt lil-beyt shem- 
mait riha keriha. 

wa"t illi btkhallis ash-shighl 
illi 'atait-ak yah "il-li. 

owwel ma btusal ruh li 

'and-uh u shuf-uh. 
da" sidr-i min-nuh (min 

sekkir al-bab halli biyinfud 

low kint shuft-ak imbereh 

kint ibkun mabsut. 
t'immelt in-nak kint btiji 

fi jim'at al-madi. 
ekhir marra shuft-uh kan 

hatta yiji b'at-li yah. 

ftunt fih wa 

lakin mada 

Travelling by train. 

Has the train from Beirut 
arrived ? 

Please tell me when the 
Damascus train arrives. 

It will probably be late to- 

sefer fil-babor. 
ija al-babor min beyrut. 

'amel m'aruf "il-li eymta 
babor ash-sham byiji. 

al-ghalib al-yom biyit' 



When does the train leave 

for Damascus? 
Every morning at / a. m. 

Where is the station master 
I want to speak to him? 
Where is my place? 
How many places do you 


I am alone. 

I want a first-class ticket 

to — . 
I want a second class ticket 

for my servant. 
What luggage will you take 

with you in the carriage ? 
I will take my bag with me 

and you can put the rest 

in the luggage van. 
Please register my luggage. 
Where do we stop for lunch ? 

What is the name of this 

station ? 
Is this your first visit to 

Syria ? 
No, I have been in Beirut 

before but I have never 

visited the Lebanon. 
The view is very fine. 

Where is Mt. Hermon? 

eymta al-babor bisafir lish- 

kill yom 'ala bukra se'a 

seb'a "abl ad-dohr. 
feyn mudir al-mhatta bidd-i 

ihki m'a-uh. 
feyn matrah-i. 
kam matrah bidd-ak. 

ana wahd-i. 

bidd-i i"t'a bil-brimo li — . 

bidd-i wara"it sekondo ila 

shu m'a-ak hmuli ('afsh). 

m'a-i shanta wa al-ba"i 
btahutt-uh m'a al-'afsh. 

'amel m'aruf sokur-li hmult-i. 
feyn biwa""if al-babor lil- 

shu ism hal-mhatta. 

hai owwel marra jit lis-suria. 

la, ana jit li beyrut "abl 
hal-marra lakin lissa ma 
ruht lil-libnan. 

al manzar hulu (jemil) (be- 
di'a) ktir. 

feyn jebel ash-sheykh. 



When do we reach Mallaka ? 
We arrive at 12 and leave 
at 12.30. 

Will you go to Baalbek? 

What is the cost of a car- 
riage to Baalbek from the 
station ? 

15 francs; it is too much, 
I will give you 12. 

I will leave my luggage at 
the station. 

How many hours does it 
take to drive to Baalbek ? 

Please drive to the hotel 

Take the luggage to my room. 

You have forgotten my box, 
please go and fetch it. 

We will spend the night 
at Baalbek and return 
next day to Mallaka, in 
order to catch the train 
to Damascus. 

The carriage is ready, if 
you want to catch the 
train we must start at 
once (in half an hour). 

Please bring me the bill. 

Can you give me change 
for a lira? 

eymta mnusal lil-m'alla"a. 
mnusal se'a tn'ash franjiyi 

(ad-dohr) wa mnimshi b'ad 

ad-dohr nuss se'a. 
btruh la ba'albek. 
"add esh biakhadu 'al-'ara- 

biyi min al-mhatta la 

khamst 'ashar frank ; haida 

ktir ana b'ati-k tn'ash bes. 
ana bitruk hmult-i fil- 

kam se'a min hon li ba'al- 
bek bil-karrosa. 
'amel m'aruf su li lokanda 

khod al-'afsh la udat-i. 
nesit sandu"i ruh dowwir 

'aleyh 'amel m'aruf. 
minnam al-leyli bi ba'albek 

u mnirja teni yom lil- 

m'alla"a hatta nilha" al- 

babor lish-sham. 

al-karrosa hadra inkan bidd- 
ak tilha" at-tren lazim 
mnirkab halla" (b'ad nuss 

'amel m'aruf jib-li "a'imit 

bti"dir tisrif li lira. 



You are too early (too late) bekkirt (t'owwa'*t) ktir 'a 

for the train. at-tren. 

I want a carriage for three bidd'i karrosa tis'a tlet 

persons. ashkhas 

Put the luggage in the car- hutt al-'afsh bil-karrosa, 

riage, be quick. st'ajil. 

Arrival at the hotel. 

Can you tell me which is 

the best hotel? 
I want a sitting-room and 

two bed-rooms. 
What do you charge a day 

for the three rooms? 
Twelve francs a day each 

person, including meals. 

I will dine in my own room. 

Let us have dinner imme- 
diately we want to go to 
bed early. 

Light the fire in the sitting- 

I want a hot (cold) bath. 

If you take the rooms by 
the month it will be 

The bed is damp, please 
change the sheets. 

al-wusul lil'lokanda. 

bti"dir tkhabber-ni eni lo- 

kanda ahsan. 
bidd-i matrah lil-isti"bal wa 

matraheyn lil-menami. 
"add' esh bidd-ak *ala hal- 

tlet matarih kuU yom. 
bidd-i itn'ashar frank 'ala 

kuU wahid kuU yom bi 

ma fih al-akl. 
ana bitghadda bi udt-i. 
khalli-na nitghadda "awam 

bidd-na nam bekku*. 

sha'il an-nar bi udat al- 

bidd-i hammam sukhn (be- 

arkhas iia kint btakhud 

al-uwad bi shahriyi. 

al-fershi rutbi inkan bt'amil 
m*aruf tghaiyir ash-sha- 



Call me at five o'clock to- 
morrow morning, we want 

• to visit the bazaars. 

I want another pillow, (an- 
other blanket). 

I want a candle, hot water, 
a towel, a lamp. 

Ring the bell. 

Have you cleaned my boots, 
bring them to me. 

feyyi"ni se'a khamsi 'ala 

bukra bidd-na ruh ndur 

bidd-i mkhaddi teni (hram 

bidd-i sham'a, mai sukhni, 

manshfi, dow. 
di" "aj-jaras. 
lamm'atil-li saramit-i, jib 

li yaha. 

With a dragoman. 
Are you a dragoman? 

What do you charge a day ? 

I charge 6 francs a day. 

Do you recommend this 

Yes sir, he is honest and 

I shall remain here a week. 

I want to visit the bazaars, 
the mosques, the town 
walls and to go for a 
drive in the neighbour- 

Damascus is divided into 
three quarters, Moslem, 
Christian, and Jewish. 

'trCa at-terjuman. 

terjuman inti (terjuman ha- 

"add esh btakhud min-ni 

kuU yom. 
bidd-i kull yom sitti frankat. 
shu bt'arif 'an haz-zalemi, 

n'am ya sid-i hui amin u 

ana bidd-i ib"a hon jim'a. 
bidd-i dur fis-su" wa ruh 

'aj-jawem'i wa shuf as- 

swar wa dur li dura bil 

karrosa hawal al-beled. 

ash-sham ma"sumi li tlet 
harat hara lil-islam wa 
hara lin-nasara wa hara 



The Christian and Jewish 
quarters are very dirty. 

The streets of Damascus 
are narrow and dark. 

The citadel stands at the 
back of the bazaars. 

The Omeiyad mosque is 
open all day. 

It is approached by a door 
leading out of the book- 
sellers' bazaar. 

In the centre of the court- 
yard is the fountain. 

The mosque has three mi- 

The minaret of the bride, 
of Jesus and the western 

We want to climb the 
western minaret, there is 
a fine view from the 

We will drive to the gates 
of God and we shall see 
the meydan on the way. 

Saladin's tomb is a hand- 
some building near the 
great mosque. 

The Sinanieh has a cele- 
brated minaret. 

harat an-nasara wal-yahud 

wiskha ktir. 
z"a"at ash-sham daiy"a u 

al-"ara hakimi bi "afa as- 

aj-jem'i al-amwi bidall tul 

an-nahar maftuh. 
biyinfeth luh min al-bab 

illi bitull 'ala su" bey'an 

bi wast ad-dar an-nofara. 

aj-jem'i fih tlet mawadin. 

al-wahdi ism-ha mednit al- 
'arus wa at-teniyi mednit 
'isa wa at-telti al-medni 

bidd-na nitl'a lil-medni al- 
gharbiyi fi min fo" man- 
zar zarif ktir. 

bidd-na nitl'a bil-karrosa li 
bawwabt allah wa mnit- 
ferraj bi derb-na 'al al- 

fi "abr zarif li salah ad-din 
"iddam aj-j^m*i al-amwi. 

fi medni mesh-hura bij-j^mi 



The Khan Asad Pasha de- 
serves a visit. 

What is that building, hill, 
street, house? 

You must be here at 8 to- 
morrow morning. 

Very good, sir, I will be 

Where is the silversmiths', 
saddlers' sweet, shoe-ma- 
kers' bazaar? 

Where is the straight street? 

Is this the way to the eastern 

The lepers' hospital is out- 
side the eastern gate. 

Where is the English hos- 
pital ? 

On the Aleppo road. 

N.B. (Kassa\ the name of 
a fountain on this road). 

Please take me to the Brit- 
ish Consulate, the railway 
station, the post-office, 
the telegraph-office. 

Is there an English church 

Can you tell me where the 

doctor lives? 

khan as'ad basha biyistihi" " 

shu hal-'amara, hat-tell, haz- 

z"a", hal-beyt. 
bukra 'ala bukra se'a tme- 

niyi franjiyi lazim tkun 

'ala ras-i ya sidi bukra se'a 

tmeniyi tamam bkun 

feyn su" as-siyagh, assrujiyi, 

su "al-halawiyat, al-kin- 

feyn z"a" al-musta"im. 
biyinrah min hon li bab 

khastakhanit al-ma'atalin 

berrat bab ash-shar"i. 
feyn khastakhanit al-inkli- 

'ala tari" al-"assa'. 

bitrajja-k in-nak takhud-ni 
ila kunslato al-inkliz, lil- 
mhatta at-tren (as-sikki), 
lil-bosta, la mahall at- 

fi honi kenisi inkliziyi. 

bt'arif feyn beyt al-hakim. 



Whose house is this? 
Knock at the door, go in. 
Go straight up the hill. 
The Russian Consulate is 
outside the town. 

li min hal-beyt. 
du""al-bab u fut (tfaddal). 
tl'a dughri il al-jebel. 
kunslato Rusiya hakimi ber- 
rat al-beled. 

Post- and Telegraph-office, 

Bosta zua mahall at- 

When does the post leave 

for England? 
The post leaves daily for 

Letters reach England in 

about ten days. 

When does the English 

mail arrive. 
Once a week. 
Please register this letter 

and give me a receipt. 
Give me twelve 20 para 

stamps (i piastre stamps) 

and five 2 piastre stamps. 

Take these letters to the 
post and stamp them. 

Ask whether the post has 

Are there any letters for 

eymta al-bosta bitsafir li 

kull yom f i bosta ila beyuit. 

al-mektub bidd-uh hikaiyit 
'ashert iyam hatta yusal 
li Inkilterra. 

eymta bitusal bostat al- 

kull jum'a marra. 

kellif khatir-ak sokur li hal- 
mektub wa 'at-ni f ih wasl. 

'ati-ni itn'ashar buli min 
shiyat al-"emeri (min shi- 
yat al-"irsh) wa khamsi 
min bta'at "irsheyn. 

khud hal-meketib 'al-bosta 
wa hutt 'aleyhum al-bul. 

s'el li izakan fjit al-bosta. 

fi il-li shi meketib. 



Please send this telegram 

to Beirut. 
Can I telegraph in English ? 
What is the cost per word ? 

di""iMi dakhl-ak hat-tila- 

ghraf li beyrut. 
be"dir du" "-uh bil-inklizi. 
"add esh bitkellif al-kilmi. 

Presenting a letter of 

Is it far to the house of 

Mr so and so? 
No sir, it will take three 

minutes in a carriage. 
Drive to Mrs so and so's 

Go and fetch a carriage, 

choose a good one. 
Close the carriage, it is cold. 

Open the carriage, it is hot. 
Is Mr so and so (Mrs so 
and so) at home? 

No sir, he is out. 
When will he return? 
Not before dinner (mid-day). 
Give him this letter and 

my card and tell him I 

will call to-morrow at 

lo a. m. 
Tell him I was sorry to 

find him out {that I could 

not meet him). 

ta'dim mektub tbsiyi, 
be'id beyt al-khowaja fulan. 

la ya sid-i bidd-uh tlet 

da"ayi" bil-karrosa. 
khud-ni li beyt as-sitt fulani. 

ruh jib karrosa wa na" "i-ha 

tkun mliha. 
sekkir al-karrosa ad-diniyi 

ftah al-karrosa fi shob. 
al-khowaja fulan biyilta"a 

fi beyt-uh (as-sitt fulani 

bitilta"a fil-beyt. 
la tili'a ila berra (ghaiyib). 
eymta byirj'a. 
ma byirj'a lid-dohr. 
'ati-h hal-mektub wa hal- 

kart u "il-luh bukra se'a 

'ashra franjiyi bitsherrif 

li 'and-uh. 
khabber-uh in-ni tkeddert 

illi ma "edirt ijtim'a fih. 



Very good. 

Please give him this letter 
and ask if he will see me. 

How long have you been 

I arrived the day before 

yesterday ? 
How do you like Damascus ? 
It is a very interesting town. 
It is very dusty and very 

How long do you propose 

to remain here? 
I want to make a journey 

to Palmyra. 
Is it possible to drive the 

whole way in a carriage ? 
It will take you five days. 
You should also visit Mt. 

It will not take you more 

than three days. 
You should see th^ sunrise 

or sunset from the top 

of the mountain. 
There are some pleasant 

drives in the neighbour- 
hood to Dummar, Sal- 

hiyeh and elsewhere^ 

Damascus is not an unheal- 

taiyib (mlih). 

'amel m'aruf 'ati-h hal mek- 

tub wa shuf inkan be"dir 

sar lak zeman jit (eymta 

sar li yomeyn (tsherrafna 

min owwelt imbereh). 
inshallah habbeyt ash-sham, 
ash-sham beled muhimmi. 
wiskha ktir u harra ktir. 

"add esh fikr-ak tduU hon. 

bi fikr-i safir la Tidmur. 

bitisal al-karrosa la honik 
(f i derb karrosa la honik). 

bidd-ak khamsit lyam. 

daruri in-nak truh li jebel 

bi tlet iyam btusal ila honik. 

lazim in-nak tshuf ash-shems 
keyf bititl'a wa keyf bit- 
ghib min ras aj-jebel. 

fi matarih zarifi bi "urb 
ash-sham li shemm al- 
hawa mitl dummar was- 
salhiyi wa ghair-uh ghai- 

hawa ash-sham bis-seyf mau 



thy place in summer 
though it is rather hot. 

Most of the foreign resi- 
dents spend the summer 
at Bludan or in the Le- 

'atil lakin-ha mishubi (ma 
an-nuh ash-sham fi-ha 
shob bis-seyf hawa-ha mau 
aktar al-ajanib biruhu bis- 
seyf ya la bludan yimma 
la libnan. 

Visit to a curiosity shop. ziyara li makhzen al-anttkat. 

I want to purchase a few 
souvenirs of Damascus. 

Look and see what you 
would like, we have car- 
pets, brasswork, silver 
work and inlaid mother- 
of-pearl work. 

You can find some fine 
tiles and silk embroide- 
ries here. 

I want a carved table and 
a few brass trays and 

Please show me a brass 
bowl inlaid with silver. 

This is a very fine one, 
the engraving is well done, 
it has an inscription from 
the Koran. 

bidd-i akhud li kam shaghli 
min ash-sham hatta tib"a 
m'a-i mitl tezkar. 

fi 'and-na sijjad wa nahas 
men'*ush wa *and-na ash- 
ghal fudda u shughl ti- 
ta'im shuf shu bturid. 

biyilta"a fish-sham "ishani 
'aal u shughl titriz (harir 
mtarraz) mu'eteber. 

bidd-i towli meshghuli wa 
kam s^niyi nahas wa kam 
tasi ghma". 

'amel m'aruffarrji-ni(arji-ni) 
tasi nahas meshghul 'aley- 
ha fudda. 

hai 'aal wa na"sh-ha zarif 
wa mahfur 'aleyha kitebi 
min al-kuran ash-sherif. 



This work is more expen- 
sive than the ordinary 
brass work. 

Most of the brass work is 
done by the Jews. 

The best trays are sent to 

Tourists prefer to buy cheap 
articles and these are 
made here specially for 

If you want better work I 
can have it made for you 
but it will cost more. 

Make me a folding tea table 
and a brass tray. 

Can I see it being made ? 

If you will come to my 
workshop to-morrow af- 
ternoon you will see the 
tray being made. 

We first cast the brass in 
a mould and, when the 
bowl is made, we fill it 
with pitch; the design is 
then drawn on the out- 
side and carved with a 
sharp instrument, and 
beaten ont with a ham- 
mer and a nail. 

ash-shughl haida bikellif ak- 

tar min shughl an-nahas 

aktar shughl an-nahas bi- 

sow-uh al-yahud. 
as-sawani al-mliha (al-ahsan 

ma yakun) biyib'atu-ha la 

as-suwwah byifaddlu shrai- 

yit al-bda'a ar-rkhisa wa 

hai m'amuli minshan-hum 

izakan bidd-ak shi mlih ana 

b'amil lak lakin bikellif 

'amil li towlit shay bitun- 

tuwi wa seniyi nahas. 
be"dir shuf-ha u hiyi 'am- 

mel tinshighil. 
iza jit bukra b'ad ad-dohr 

lid-dukken titferrij 'ala 

shughl as-seniyi. 

bil-owwel minsubb an-nahas 
bil-"elib b'adeyn wa"t illi 
bisir tasi mintelli-ha zift 
b'adeyn mniktub 'aleyha 
kitebi min berra wa min- 
"ush 'aleyha bi ali haddi 
tkun wa mnihfur 'aleyha 
bil-matra"a u mismar. 




I want a frame inlaid with 
mother-of-pearl and a 
small table. 

What does this carved chair 

bidd-i birwaz 

mta'am u 

*add esh 

al-kursi al-hafir 

Residence with a family. 

I want to find a family with 
whom I can pass the 
winter in order to learn 

Do you want merely to 
have rooms in the house 
or will you take your 
meals with the family? 

I want to reside among 
them and have my meals 
with them, so that I can 
hear them talk and learn 
the spoken Arabic. 

It is not the custom here 
to receive strangers, our 
habits are very different 
to yours; it will not be 
comfortable for you. 

It is the only way to learn 
Arabic quickly. 

How am I to find a family ? 

I will enquire among my 
friends with pleasure but 
I fear it will be difficult. 

al-ma'ishi ma ''aVeli, 

bidd-i la""i li 'ai'eli iskun 
m'a-ha shitwiyi hatta t'al- 
1am 'arabi. 

bidd-ak bes tiskun yimma 
bidd-ak kaman takul m'a- 

bidd-i iskun u akul m'a-hum 
hatta ism'a-hum keyf by- 
uhku wa t'allam al-'arabi 

ma fi 'adi *and-na in-na 
ni"bel al-ghurb 'awa'id-na 
ma mitl 'awa'id-kum ma 

ma fi ghair hat-tari" hatta 
t'allam 'arabi "awam. 

kif bidd-i la""i 'ai'eH. 

ana bi kull ferah bis'el lak 
sahab-i lakin bzunn in-nuh 



I think I know of a house bzunn in-ni b'arif beyt bi- 

which will suit you, we wafi"-ak minruh al-yom 

will call there together b'ad ad-dohr sawa wa 

this afternoon. minzur-uh. 

Interview with the head 
of a family. 

Do you understand what I 
require ? 

I have taken a house which 
is too large for my fa- 
mily, and I can let you 
have two rooms. 

Can I have my meals with 

Yes, if you are able to eat 
our Arab dishes, you are 
welcome (there is no ob- 

I do not mind anything as 
long as the house is clean. 

We have dinner at noon 
and supper at sun-set, 
and you can have coffee 
or anything else you re- 
quire in the morning. 

Those hours suit me very 
well ; what are your terms 
for the month? 

I cannot take less than 200 
francs a month and I shall 

m^'*abeli nCa raiyis al-ai'eli, 
fahman hadrat-akshu bidd-i. 

akhadt beyt kbir 'ala 'ai- 
'ilt-i wa be"dir bistaghni 
lak 'an udateyn. 

be"dir bekol u bishrab 

iza bti"dir tekol min ekel- 

na ahla u sahla (ma fih 


shi li bihimm-ni in-nuh ye- 
kun al-beyt ndif. 

mnitghadda ad-dohr wa 
mnit'ashshaal-mughrib wa 
izakan bturid "ahwi ow 
shi ghair-uh 'ala bukra 
minhaddir lak. 

al-wa"t 'aal "add esh btu- 
rid ash-shehr. 

ma be"dir bakhud a"^l min 
miteyn frank kuU shehr 



gain very little (lit: I shall 
be treating you liberally). 

I shall probably remain with 
you three months. 

I should like to come to 
you to-morrow, will every- 
thing be ready? 

wa bkun ra'it-ak ktir. 

al-ghalib bu" 'ud 'and-ak 

tlet ish-hur. 
iza jit li 'and-ak bukra bi- 

kun kull shi hadir. 

Visit to a barber. 
Cut my hair; cut it short. 

Do not cut it very short. 
Leave it long in front and 
cut it short at the sides. 

Give me a brush and a comb. 
Be careful not to cut me. 
Do not put any pomade 

on my hair. 
Wash my head. 
Dry it well or I shall catch 

Shave me. 
Give me some hot water, 

soap and a razor and I 

wil shave myself. 
Your razor is blunt, give 

me another. 
Sharpen this razor for me. 

^and al-halla'\ 

"uss il-li sh'ar-i; bidd-i-ha 

la tzaghghur-uh ktir. 
khalli li yah min "iddam 

tawil wa min 'al aj-jenab 

'ati-ni firshaiyi u musht. 
dir bel-ak tijrah-ni. 
ma bidd-i rihataiyibi (dhun). 

ghassil li ras-i. 
neshshif-uh taiyib ahsan ma 

'ati-ni shwayit mai sukhni 

u sabuni u mus u ana 

behli" la hal-i. 
mus-ak mau madi (hadd) 

'ati-ni ghair-uh. 
sinn il-li hal-mus. 



In the cafe. 


Give me a cup of coffee. 

Do you want it with or 
without sugar? 

I prefer Turkish coffee with- 
out sugar. 

How much is it? 

Boy, bring me a few sweet- 
meats, a glass of water 
and the chess-board. 

Bring me a narghileh. 

I should Hke aglassofarak 
and a few pistachio nuts. 

Buy me a box of cigarettes, 
third quality, and give 
me a box of matches. 

Have you a newspaper? 

The Suria is printed in 
Turkish and Arabic and 
contains all the official 

I am tired and want to 
return to the hotel, fetch 
me a carriage. 

'ati-ni finjan "ahwi. 

bturid-ha hilwi yimma 

bhubb-ha 'osmalliyi bela sik- 

"add esh bturid. 

ya walad yib li shwayit hulu 
u kasit mai u hat as-sa- 

bidd-i nefes (arkili). 

bidd-i "adah 'ara" wa shwa- 
yit fistu" (maza). 

shtri li *elbit sikarat nii- 
mero tleti wa *ati-ni 'elbit 

fi m'a-ak jeridi. 

jeridit suria bitintib'i bit- 
turki wal-'arabi wa fiha 
kuU al-akhbar ar-resmiyi. 

sirt t'aben u bidd-i irj'a 'al 
al-lokanda jib li karrosa. 

The washerwoman. 

How soon can you let me 
have my linen back? 


eymta btrijj'a li (awa'i) al- 



I cannot send the shirts be- 
fore Thursday, sir, the 
other things you can have 
Very good, but you must 
promise to send them all 
on Thursday evening. 
Here is a list of my things : 
8 shirts. 
7 collars. 
3 pairs of socks. 
12 pocket-handkerchiefs. 
2 pairs of drawers. 
2 undervests. 
6 white ties. 
You must put plenty of 
starch in the shirt fronts. 
(I like the shirts well 
How much do you charge? 

20 paras a piece for every- 

Dont leave my flannels to 
soak in the water it ma- 
kes them shrink. 

Wash them quickly and 
hang them out to dry. 

Don't put soda in the water. 

ma be"dir b'at lak al-"um- 
san "abl al-khamis wa 
ba"iyit al-awa'i bib'at lak 
yahum bukra. 
ktir mlih lakin bidd-ak tu- 
'id-ni in-nak tib'at-hum 
kull-hum khamis 'ashiyi. 
u hai "a'imit ighrad-i. 
tmen "umsan. 
seb'a "abbat. 
tlet ijwaz jrabet. 
itn'ashar mahremi. 
"amiseyn 'adi. 
sitt "amtat ra"bi. 
neshshi li al-"umsan ktir 
(bhubb al-*'umsan yekun 
nisha-hum ktir). 

"add esh bturid ijra (shu 
btakhud 'aleyhum). 

bidd-i eshrin misriyi 'ala 
kull "ut'a. 

la tkhalli al-flanella tghubb 
mai ktir ahsan ma tdubb. 

ghassil-hum "awam wa 
nshiir-hum hatta yinshufu. 
la tahutt "ili fil-mai. 



At the shoemaker's. 

'and al-kinderji. 

Please make me a pair of 

Take my measure. 

These shoes are too tight, 
they hurt my feet. 

Do you want them made 
of black or brown leather ? 

Will you have them to but- 
ton, lace or elastic sides? 

I want high (low) heels and 

thick (thin) soles. 
This pair of boots wants 

The soles (heels) are worn 

Put on a new sole. 
There are nails sticking up, 

knock them down. 
I want a pair of boot-laces 

and a pair of slippers. 

'amel m'aruf 'ami'l li sir- 

khod "iyas rijl-i. 
hal-kundura daiy"a bituj'a 

li rijl-i. 
shu bturid yekun lon-ha 

soda ow safra. 
bturid sawi lak yaha bi zrar 

ow bi shrit ow bturid-ha 

bidd-i k'ab-ha 'aali (wati) 

wa n'al smik (khafif). 
hal-kundura bidd-a taslih. 

n'al-a (k'ab-a) mihtiri. 

hutt il-la n'al jdid. 

fi mesamir nab "a du""hum. 

bid-di joz shraiyit lil-kun- 
dura wa shahata. 

At the stationer s. 

'and bey' a al wara'*. 

Have you writing paper, 
pens, envelopes, blotting- 
paper, pencils, indiarubber 
and ink? 

'and-ak wara" kitabi wa 
"ilam wa mughallifat wa 
wara*' neshshaf wa "ilam 
resas wa mahaiyi wa hibr. 



What size writing paper do 
you require ? 

Show me what you have 
and I will choose. 

I want some larger (smaller) 
paper than this and some 
envelopes to match. 

I will take this, please wrap 
it up in paper for me. 

Is there anything else you 

Yes, I want some red seal- 
ing wax and some reed 
pens and Turkish ink. 

In Turkey they use sand 
instead of blotting-paper. 

I want a pocket-book and 

an account- book. 
Have you an almanac? 
Where shall I send the 

parcel ? 

al-wara" "add esh bidd-ak 

yekun "add-uh. 
arji-ni illi 'and-ak wa ana 

bna" "i. 
bidd-i wara" akbar (azghar) 

min haida wa mughallifat 

*ala "add-um. 
bidd-i hai liff il-li yaha 

kellif khatir-ak. 
bturid shi ghair-uh. 

eywah bidd-i sham'a ahmar 

u "ilam 'arabi wa hibr 

as wad. 
fi belad al-'osmalli bista'- 

melu rami bedel wara'* 

bidd-i jizdan byinhatt bij- 

jeybi wa defter hisab. 
'and-ak riznami. 
liweyn akhud ar-rizmi (al- 



I want a good dragoman 

who knows the road to 


This man is honest and 

his charges are moderate. 


bidd-i terjuman mlih illi 
biy'arif at-tari" la Tidmur. 

haz-zalemi amin (hal-insan 
taiyib) mau tamma'a. 

What is our best way of mneyn ahsan nruh la Tfd- 
going to Palmyra? mur. 



How much will it cost, we 
are a party of four? 

You can drive or ride as 
you like. 

It is better to take tents 
with you. 

You should apply to the 
Governor for gendarmes, 
two will be sufficient. 

I am ready to provide hor- 
ses, food and tents for 
all the party. 

We will start as soon as 
you have made all ar- 

The journey will take four 
days. We shall spend the 
first night at Jerud, the 
second at Karyateyn, the 
third at Khan al-lebn and 
reach Palmyra on the 
evening of the fourth day. 

We must ride faster or it 
will be dark before we 
reach the place where we 
are to sleep. 

The horses are tired we 
cannot galop. 

This is where we are to 
spend the night. 

nahna arb'a shu bidd-na 

btahubb truh khaiyal wa 

in habbeyt btruh bil-kar- 

rosa (bil-'arabaiyi). 
al-ahsan takhud m'a-ak khi- 

al-ahsan in-nak tutlub min 

al-wali in-nuh y'ati-k zab- 

tiyi itneyn zabtiyi bikef- 

wa ana hadir in-ni "addim 

li kull aj-jema'a al-kheyl 

wa al-akl m'a al-khiyam. 
metama waddabt kull shi 


bidd-na arb'at iyam hatta 
nisal minnam owwel leyli 
fi jerud wa at-teni leyli 
bil-'uriateyn telit leyli bi 
khan al-lebn wa rab'i yom 
al-masa mnisal la Tidmur. 

ahsan in-na nist'ajil '*abl 
ma tmessi ad-diniyi wa 
ma nla" "i matrah an-nam 

al-kheyl t'abit ma mn^"dir 

hon bidd-na ninzel (nhow- 



Put the horses in the stable 
and see that they are pro- 
perly fed and attended to. 

Have you a clean room? 

This is the largest room I 
have but it has no beds. 

We dont want beds, we 
have them with us. 

We are hungry, will you 
prepare us some dinner? 

I can give you a chicken 
and some rice. 

The meat is not cooked 
enough, cook it a little 

Send me the dragoman as 
soon as he returns. 

There is a great draught, 
block up the windows 
and light the fire. 

Put my bed in this cor- 
ner, the dragoman will 
sleep outside. 

We will start at sun-rise 
tomorrow, see that the 
horses are ready. 

We will have some coffee 
and boiled eggs before 

Give a present to the owner 
of the house, he has been 
very obliging. 

hutt al-kheyl fil-yakhur u 
lahiz akl-un u tutmir-un. 

'and-ak uda ndifi. 

hai akbar uwad illi 'and-i 

lakin ma fi-ha firshat. 
ma bidd-na firshat 'and-na. 

je'na bthaddir-na al-ghada. 

bwaddib lak ferruj m'a 

shwayit riz. 
al-lahmi ma-i mistwiyi sat- 

wi-ha shwayit al-ukhr. 

wa*'t il byiji at-terjuman 

b'at li yah. 
fi hawa ktir sidd ash-she- 

bebik wa sha'il an-nar. 

hutt il-li fersht-i bi hal-"urni 
at-terjuman binam berra. 

bukra tlu'a ash-shems bidd- 
na nimshi shuf inkan ad- 
dawab hadra. 

bidd-na "ahwi u beyd mas- 
lu" "abl ma nsafir. 

sahib al-beyt kan.ktir latif 
m'a-na 'ati-h ikramiyi. 



Saddle the horses. 

Tighten (loosen) the girths. 
This bridle is too small 

change it. 
Does this horse trip at all, 

is he fast, quiet, lame? 
The horse has lost a shoe 

have him shod. 
I will hold the horse while 

you load the mules. 
Make haste and pack up 

the things, we are late. 
Can we cross the river here ? 
Yes, it is not deep and the 

bridge is some way off. 
Call me the headman of 

the village. 
Can you send a man to 

guide us? 
How far is it to Nebk? 

How many hours shall we 
take to reach Karyateyn 
on horseback? 

The road is very steep, 
narrow and stony. 

wallif 'al al-kheyl ('al ad- 

shidd (hill) al-hizemet. 
hal-ljam zghir bdil-uh. 

hal-hisan byisk'a shi, rak- 

kid, hadi, 'araj. 
al-hisan hafian min rijl-uh 

al-wahd-i beytir-ha. 
ana bimsik al-hisan wa inti 

hammil al-bghal. 
st'ajil wa dubb al-ighrad 

mne"dirnu"t'a an-nahr hon. 
n*am mau ghami" wa aj- 

jisr be'id. 
*aiyit li (ndah li) 'ala sheyk 

bte'*dir tib'at m'a-na delil. 

"add esh tib'ed an-neb" 

min hon. 
kam sa'a bidd-na Hl-"uria- 

teyn 'al-kheyl. 

at-tari" sair daiyi" u wa'ir 
u kull-uh tlu'a. 


Which way does the wind 


mneyn j^i al-hSlwa (al-h5wa 
keyf hakim). 


It is in the North, which al-hawa shimali 'aal 'a as- 

is excellent for sport. seyd. 

It is in the South, the birds al-hawa jenubi wa at-tuyur 

will now be up in the halla" bitilta"a bij-jebel 

mountains, there will be wa as-seyd 'abes. 

no sport. 

Have you got my cartrid- m'a-ak feshekat-i. 


Have you loaded the gun ? dakkeyt aj-jift. aj-jift musli. 

the gun is cocked. 

Fetch the dogs. jib al-klab. 

There is a bird on your fi teyr 'a yemin-ak (min 'a 

right (left). I have hit it. shimal-ak). subt-uh. 

I have wounded it. jeraht-uh. 

There is a covey of par- fi ruff hijal bi ras aj-jebel. 

tridges on the top of the 


Do you see where they shaiyif-un feyn rahu. 


They have gone over the rahu min fo" al-wadi. 


Look out, there is a pig tall'a beyn al-'alley'* fi 

in the bushes. khanzir. 

Keep the dogs back, dont khalli al-klab wara-na la 

make a noise. tdowwij. 

There he is. Here he is. leyk-uh honik. shahowki-h 


Come along. He is wounded mshi ley-na, injerah ma 

he cannot get away. byi"dir yuhrub. 

Give me my knife, cut it's 'ati-ni mus-i, dbah-uh. 


All right, I am ready. taiyib ana hadir. 



How many woodcock did 

you get? 
It was too warm, we could 

get no woodcock, we got 

five quail, a hare and 

three duck. 
We saw a bear but we 

could not get near enough 

to him. 
There are ibex in these hills. 
Take your rifle with you 

in case we see any big 

They say there are gazelle 

in the neighbourhood. 
Is there any game in that 

plain ? 
The wood is full of game. 
Take the bag back to the 

tent and prepare dinner, 

we shall be back in a 

quarter of an hour. 
I want to cross over to the 

other side of the stream. 
Walk down the mountain 

There is a good spring of 

water at the bottom. 
The water is icy cold (chil- 
ly) wait till the sun gets 

on it before you water 

the horses. 

kam djajit al-ard jibit. 

kan shob ktir ma "edirna 
njib djaj ard, jibna khamsi 
firraiyat arnab u tlet battat. 

shufna dubb lakin ma "edir- 
na n"arrib la nah-uh. 

fi bi hal-jibal wa'al. 

jib m'a-ak barudt-ak mshesh- 

khani berki shufna wu- 

hush kbar. 
bi"ulu in-nuh fi han-nawahi 

fi ghuzlan. 
fi seyd bi haidak as-sahil. 

fi seyd ktir fi hirsh. 
khod al-kis lil-kheymi wa 

haddir al-ghada wa b'ad 

rub'a sa'a mnirj'a. 

bidd-i u"t'a li haidak aj- 

jeneb min an-nahr. 
inzel min aj-jebel 'ala 

fi bi k'ab-uh neb'a mu'e- 

teber ('aal). 
al-mai mjeldi (msa" 'a) la 

tis"i ad-dawab "abl ma 

tutl'a ash-shems. 


Page 13, line 3, 'atshen 

58, „ 23, hid'ash 

58, ^ 26, wehid J 

97, y, I, fow "al-hadd „ 

97, „ 2, fow "al-"iyes „ 

„ 100, „ 7, haniiyit 

^ 103, ^ 21, irwet 

104, ^ 2, uda „ 

„ 104, ^ 10, d 

„ 107, ^ 29, instinbat ^ 

^ 233, „ 16, telmizp.telemiz„ 

^ 245, y, 23, serur 

„ 317, , 18, 'at-ni , 

should be 'atshen. 
„ hid'ash. 

„ wehid. 

„ fow" al-hadd. 

„ fow" al-"iyes. 

„ haniyit. 

„ 'irwet. 

ff uda. 

. P- 

„ istinbat. 

„telmizp. telemiz. 

„ serwi. 

„ 'ati-ni. 






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Abliedananda (Swami).— Divine Heritage of Man. 121110, pp. 215, 

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Budge (E. A. Wallis).— The Histories of Rabban Hormizd, the 

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Budge (E. A. Wallis). — The Laughable Stories collected by Bar- 

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Cowell (E. B.). See Sana's Harsa Carita. 

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lew.."— Asiatic Quarterly Rcvie^v. 

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Complete List of Books ^ and Periodicals. 17 

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••Mr. K=-~ -~- ' ':• 1 on Yi\% cop- ' '' f' '-'—'^ tcxu, and itill 

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King (Leonard W.). — The Seven Tablets of Creation, or the 

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Complete List of Books a?id Periodicals. 2 r 

Land (J. P. N.).— The Principles of Hebrew Grammar. B} J. P. N. 

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fo ... I thr 

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Minayeff (J.).— Pali Grammar. A Phonetic and Morphological 

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Moore (A. W.).— Existence, Meaning, and Reality in Locke's Essay 

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Thomas (F. W.). Sec Sana's Harsa Carita. 

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Complete List of Hoo/cs and Periodienls. 29 

Thompson (R. Campbell). — The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. 

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Complete List of Books and Periodicals. 31 

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Winckler (H.).--The Tell-El-Amarna Letters. Transliicraiion, 

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.\ full citation of .ill the pKiccs v. . .'•." 

33 Lit::ac ^ Co. 

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